Errors of perception in the process of communication

Several human traits lead to inadequate or incorrect conclusions about the things he perceives. Optical illusion is a good example of how the same characteristics of an object are perceived differently by people. The most important is the perceptual bias that occurs in relationships between people. There are many situations at work where perceptional bias can be triggered by something as simple as the way a co-worker speaks or dresses. Perceptual bias causes distortions, the causes of which are especially important to understand. Consider the different types of human reaction and the types of errors that arise in this case (the so-called trends in the process of making judgments).

The process of perception and understanding of another person, in addition to the effect of stereotypes, is also affected by other factors that contribute to the distortion of the image of another person and make mutual understanding difficult.

First impression: “What a charming smile. I like him”.

Halo: “I don’t think he has any flaws.”

Projection: “I think his father is like me.”

Own personality theory: “He’s so humble. He will never join our team.”

Stereotype: “Does he have a motorcycle? When will he show his tattoos?

Attribution: “What is he doing here? The boss must have forced him to come.”

First impression (halo effect) . Impressions about other people are formed when meeting. This trend presents a problem because the first impression is often the longest lasting. Usually the first contacts are quite short, therefore, it can be concluded that early impressions are based on limited information. In other words, when evaluating, a person uses only some of the facts, and then supports the prevailing opinion.

The essence of the “halo effect” is that a person liked at first sight will be perceived as pleasant in the future, and no matter what he does or says, his words and actions will be considered less critically, i.e. more favorably. And vice versa, if a person is not liked at first sight, then no matter what he does later, everything will be “wrong”. At the same time, it must be remembered that people perceive people who are positively similar to themselves (by the way they dress, by their views, beliefs, status) or simply attractive.

Halo or emphasis on one characteristic . Many people strongly like or dislike only one thing in others. For example, if clothing plays a big role for a person, then the manner of dressing can become dominant in assessing other people. If the other person is poorly dressed, then the result may be a general negative impression of him. This tendency is called the halo effect, which results in a situation where one or more of an individual’s characteristics influence their assessment of other characteristics.

The halo also refers to our self-image. We will make the most positive opinion about a person who has the same traits as ourselves. A manager who always comes to work on time is likely to have a positive attitude towards subordinates who are punctual and a negative attitude towards those who are late.

In the action of this effect, the dependence of the perception of a person’s private properties on the influence caused by the general impression of him is fixed.

It manifests itself in the fact that, in general, an unfavorable impression of a person prevents his colleagues from seeing his positive characteristics. Conversely, with a generally favorable impression, negative factors are not taken into account. In accordance with this effect of perception, the existing image is rigidly fixed, without taking into account the versatility of manifestations of a person’s character and its change.

Projection. Projection is a form of defense mechanism by which people protect themselves from undesirable characteristics they possess but do not want to admit to themselves. In fact, we see in others the traits that we ourselves possess. For example, you can accuse a co-worker of slovenliness if slovenliness annoys you in yourself. Projection is used to create misconceptions. If others do not have traits projected onto them, then the wrong impression we create will dominate our behavior, and further wrong conclusions will follow.

Proprietary Theory of Personality . Almost every person is an amateur psychologist and has his own judgments about personality. People have the trait of grouping the characteristics of others, or forming their own theory of personality. This encourages a person to draw conclusions about the personality of others that he considers correct. For example, statements such as “honest people work hard”, “sleepy people are lazy”, “quiet people are dangerous” link one personality characteristic to another. But any connection can be dangerous. Hard work and honesty are not always linked. Sonys are not necessarily bad workers. Quiet can be really shy or cowardly.

Trying to create your own theory of personality is the worst form of amateur psychology. The safest way to infer about people is to link two characteristics together only if there is evidence that both characteristics are consistently repeatable.

Stereotypes . In one’s own personality theory, a person links together two or more characteristics. Stereotypes are another kind of binding, i.e. we link the characteristics of people to the characteristics of the group to which we attribute these people. If we find out that a person is Italian, then we can think that he is very emotional and prone to gesticulation. If he is Irish, we can infer that he likes whiskey. Other than nationality, groups of stereotypes are old people or children, professors, salespeople, journalists, bosses, or any other category that means something to a person.

Members of groups, especially homogeneous ones, share common values and beliefs and may even share common traits or behaviors. In some cases, a person calmly draws conclusions about people based on their belonging to a particular group. He is likely right in concluding that athletes are in good health, that the average woman lifts less weight than the average man, but there are women who outperform men in lifting weights.

Often stereotypes are rehashings of old myths and prejudices. Careful examination may show that only a few members of the group have the characteristics attributed to them. Nevertheless, stereotypes are very common and persist because they are useful and help people organize the world around them. They are based on uncertainty, and sometimes on fear or threat, which are constantly reinforced.

Stereotypes are also reinforced by language practice, for example, the word “bespectacled”, said in relation to a schoolboy, is understood as a diligent student, which is not always true.

Attribution. Underlying our perceptions and judgments is the desire to know why things happen. In the very nature of man, there is a fundamental desire to explain the reason for one’s own and others’ behavior. Why? is the key to explaining, organizing, and justifying human behavior. Failure to explain the cause of an event can lead us into a state of discomfort and even stress. If we know why events happen, then we can anticipate them in the future and choose the right course of action.

Settings. A distorted idea of the personality of another person is often formed under the influence of attitudes.

In psychology, an attitude is called an unconscious readiness formed in a person for a certain behavior, a readiness to respond positively or negatively to certain facts or events. The installation is manifested by habitual judgments, ideas, actions. Once developed, it remains for a more or less long time. The rate of formation and attenuation of installations, their mobility is different.

Question

Role (in social psychology) (from the French rule) – the social function of the individual; a way of behavior of people corresponding to accepted norms, depending on their status or position in society, in the system of interpersonal relations. The concept of R. was introduced into social psychology by D. Mead (see interactionism). The individual performance by a person of R. has a certain “personal coloring”, which depends primarily on his knowledge and ability to be in this R., on its significance for him, on the desire to more or less meet the expectations of others. The range and number of R. are determined by the variety of social groups, activities and relationships, in which the personality is included, its needs and interests. Distinguish R. social, due to the place of the individual in the system of objective social relations (professional, socio-demographic, etc.). and R. interpersonal, determined by the place of the individual in the system of interpersonal relations (leader, outcast, etc.). There are also active R., performed at the moment, and latent, not manifested in this situation. In addition, R. distinguish between institutionalized (official, conventional), associated with the official requirements of the organization, which includes the subject, and spontaneous, associated with spontaneously arising relations and activities.
Brief psychological dictionary. – Rostov-on-Don: PHOENIX. L.A. Karpenko, A.V. Petrovsky, M. G. Yaroshevsky .

An integral part of any human existence is the need to play certain roles in society, since without this the functioning of the social organism is impossible and the self-realization of the individual is impossible. Role behavior is the behavior of an individual, manifested depending on the tasks performed in accordance with the expectations of others. Its main conditions are the acceptability and clarity of the role itself. The clarity of the role shows that the given person (who performs it) understands the content of the role, as well as the connection of the activities carried out by him with other personalities. The acceptability of the role lies in the conscious readiness for its execution in order to obtain a certain satisfaction. The role itself is not a model of behavior. The character of the individual serves as a link between expectations and behavior. As a result, role-playing behavior acts as a unique product of interpretation and interpretation.

Any human behavior begins with the role played by him in the social environment. Thus, a person can evaluate and know himself, determining his place in a particular environment, after which he controls, directs and corrects his own behavior. This process takes place individually in each individual case and depends solely on the parameters of the mental personality, when it is exposed to the influence of the industrial and social environment.

all social roles are subject to certain restrictions in compatibility. Under certain conditions, a person may be faced with the fact that certain needs lead to opposition and, as a result, the breaking of roles. This is how role conflict arises.

Role conflict is a situation in which a person is faced simultaneously with several requirements, in which the implementation of one of the roles leads to the impossibility of fulfilling all the others. In general, there are two types of such conflicts:

inter-role – when it occurs between roles;

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