Eastern foothills zone

The eastern slope breaks off steeply to the plains of the Trans-Urals. The ridges are elongated in 1-2 bands along the watershed ridge. They are separated by the meridional valley of the Miass River. The height is about 500 meters. The highest point in the Ilmensky mountains, Ilmentau 747m

Transural plain

To the east of the Ural Mountains, the relief changes dramatically. This elevated hilly plain runs in the meridional direction through the entire territory of the region. Altitude from 200 to 450 m.

The flatness of the territory is determined by the presence of a thick weathering crust, which cuts on the eroded surface of Paleozoic deposits. On the banks of the rivers Uvelka, Sukharysh, Bagaryak, rocky outcrops of limestone with karst relief forms were formed. There are caves, and between the rivers – funnels, upland.

Western margin of the West Siberian Plain

The relief is flat, slightly dissected. The height is 120-180 m. The plain is replete with numerous saucer-shaped depressions, crested elevations are not uncommon, small hills with very gentle slopes.

The relief of the area continues to develop at the present time. The main factor in relief formation is a combination of slow oscillatory movements of the earth’s crust and external forces. The leading role belongs to the mining industry, as a result, such landforms as dumps, quarries, and pits are created.

The climate of the Chelyabinsk region

The climate of the Chelyabinsk region is continental. Winters are cold and long, summers are relatively hot, with recurring droughts. The climate features are associated with the position of the region in the center of the Eurasian continent, at a great distance from the seas and oceans, and, above all, from the Atlantic Ocean.

The formation of the climate is significantly influenced by the Ural Mountains, which create obstacles to the movement of western air masses.

In winter, the Southern Urals is under the influence of the Asian anticyclone. Continental air coming from Siberia brings frosty and dry weather. There are also frequent intrusions of cold air masses from the north.

In summer, low pressure prevails in the region. Arctic air masses come here from the Barents and Kara Seas, and tropical air masses from Kazakhstan and Central Asia move from the south. Westerly winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean bring wet and unsettled weather.

The features of the relief of the Southern Urals determine the presence of a clearly defined latitudinal zonality in the Trans-Urals and vertical zonality in the mountains. The continentality of the climate increases from the northwest to the southeast.

In harsh winters, the absolute minimum air temperature is -46; -48 degrees, and in low relief forms – 50 degrees.

Atmospheric precipitation in the region is unevenly distributed. 700-800 mm falls on the windward slopes and tops of the highest mountains. 500-600 mm on eastern slopes. 300-500 mm in the flat Trans-Urals.

The largest amount of precipitation falls on the summer season. In winter, the amount of precipitation decreases sharply.

In the warm half of the year, 75-78% of the annual precipitation falls. The amount of summer precipitation is not constant and fluctuates widely.

The snow cover is thicker (44-48 cm) and longer (165-170 days) in the mountain-forest zone. In the forest-steppe zone it reaches 34-38 cm with a duration of 156-160 days. The snow cover in the steppe zone is characterized by the lowest indicators. Average thickness 24-30 cm, duration 153-155 days.

Thus, if the mountain-forest zone is an area of excessive moisture in terms of precipitation, and the forest-steppe zone is an area of moisture, then the steppe zone is an area of insufficient moisture.

Inland waters

The Chelyabinsk region has numerous rivers and lakes. There are many ponds and reservoirs on the territory. However, in terms of water reserves, the Chelyabinsk region is inferior to other regions of the Urals. The territory is located on the watershed of the Kama, Ural and Tobol rivers, so small rivers with low water content predominate here. The use of many rivers is limited due to shallow water and high water salinity.

Rivers

Numerous rivers are formed on the territory of the Chelyabinsk region, belonging to the basins of the Kama, Tobol and Ural, but they flow here mainly in their upper reaches. The total number of rivers in the region exceeds 3.5 thousand km, but the vast majority are very small, less than 10 km long. The total length of the rivers is 17,926 km. The smallest rivers, not reaching 10 km, make up 90.3% of the total number of rivers and 43% of their total length. There are 348 rivers longer than 10 km in the region, their total length is 10,235 km. Only 17 rivers have a length of more than 100 km. And only 7 rivers: Miass, Uy, Ural, Ufa, Uvelka and Gumbeika – have a length of more than 200 km (within the region)

The variety of climatic conditions and geological and geomorphological structure leads to significant differences in the distribution of rivers throughout the region. Based on this, the coefficient of the river network in the Cis-Urals and in the mountainous part varies within 0.4-0.7 km / km², in the Trans-Urals – from 0.01 to 0.4 km / km²

River feeding

Snow waters play a predominant role in feeding the rivers. The share of snow supply varies from 60-70% in the mountainous part to 80-90% in the plain forest-steppe and steppe regions. The share of rain supply in the same direction decreases from 25-30% to 10-12%. Underground inflow into the rivers does not exceed 15-20%. The ratio of underground and surface nutrition varies with the seasons of the year.

The nature of nutrition determines the features of the distribution of runoff in the year. In the rivers of the Southern Urals, spring runoff is of primary importance. The lowest water content is observed in winter. Summer low water is also clearly expressed. With intense summer precipitation, rain floods are possible on the rivers.

river runoff

The Ai river has the highest water consumption – 48.2 m³ / s. Approximately half as much (20-30 m³ / s) flows in the Ural, Ufa, Sim, Yuryuzan rivers. The discharges of the Miass, Uy, Tesma rivers are 10-12m³/s. Other rivers are even more shallow.

The rivers of the Kama basin have the highest water content. They account for 60% of the total water resources.

Water resources are unevenly distributed across natural zones. In the forest zone, which occupies 26.1% of the area, water resources account for almost 65% of their total volume. And the resources of the steppe are only 14.9%, although the area of the latter covers 37.4% of the territory of the region.

The uneven intra-annual distribution of river runoff and territorial differences in the distribution of water resources within the region determined the need to regulate surface runoff by creating ponds and reservoirs.!

reservoirs

Currently, 335 reservoirs and ponds have been built and reconstructed in the region, designed for economic, drinking and industrial water supply of cities and rural settlements … The total volume of reservoirs is 2.9 km³.

There are only 6 large reservoirs with a water volume of more than 100 million m³ in the region. These are Argakhzinskoye and Shershnevskoye on the river. Miass; Verkhneuralskoe and Magnitogorsk on the river. Ural; Nyazepetrovskoe and Dolgobrodskoe on the Ufa river.

The lack of water resources in the arid regions of the region has necessitated the creation of reservoirs and ponds here. Therefore, the largest number of them was built in the forest-steppe and steppe zones, the smallest – in the mountainous regions. There are 240 of them in the Tobol basin, and 23 in the mountainous part.

lakes

Territory Ch.o. exceptionally rich in lakes. There are more than 3 thousand of them here, with a total area of 2125 km². The size of the lakes is from 1-2 hectares to 70-80 km². Small ones predominate, less than 0.5 km² -566, of which 468 have an area from 0.5 to 5 km² and only 98 – over 5 km²

The eastern foothills are distinguished by the largest lake content (14-15%), which is associated with the presence of numerous basins of tectonic origin. The largest lakes of the region are widespread here: Uvildy, Irtyash, B. Kisegach … The Uvildy lake has the largest area of the water surface. A characteristic feature of tectonic lakes is the presence of deep, pronounced basins, the depths of which reach 30-40 m (Uvildy, Turgoyak, B. Kisegach), the shores are high rocky.

The lakes of the eastern foothills have large reserves of fresh water. The volume in the lakes reaches 500-1000 million m³ (Uvildy, Kisegach, Chebarkul, Kasli lakes) they serve as a source of water supply. There are many lakes in the Trans-Urals, the clarity of this region is -5-10%, relatively small reservoirs are located here (Shablish, Argayash, B. Kuyash …)

In the south, in the districts of the region. Within the West Siberian Lowland, small lakes predominate. This group includes many lakes of the Uvelsky, Oktyabrsky, Troitsky, Chesmensky districts.

Lakes Ch.o. rich in various balneological resources (organic and mineral mud, alkaline waters). On their basis, resorts were created: Kisegach, Uvildy, Elovoye.

swamps

Occupy more than 2500 km². The percentage of swampiness on average in the region is 2.8%. Most of the swamps are in the region of the eastern foothills, as well as in the northern and s-in parts of the Trans-Urals.

High swampiness is characteristic of the s-in districts (Kaslinsky, Kunashaksky, Krasnoarmeisky). The development of swamps occurs as a result of the swamping of lowland areas in the interfluves of the rivers Tichi, Karabolka, Sinara … Many swamps are formed in the process of overgrowth of lakes. Lakes Tretye, Mayan, Tishki can serve as examples.

Bogs do not have a significant effect on surface runoff, and in areas of insufficient moisture, due to increased evaporation from the surface of marshes, they reduce surface runoff.

The groundwater

On the territory of Ch.o. groundwater is common in rocks of different ages, from Paleozoic to Quaternary. The mountainous part is dominated by cracked underground waters of low mineralization.

69 deposits and areas of underground waters have been explored on the territory of the region. Including 6 deposits of mineral waters. 9,000 water wells were drilled with a total water turnover of 1 million m³/day.

notable springs White Key (Taganai Ridge)

Water resources

Most of the territory of Ch. extremely poorly supplied with water. A certain part is met by groundwater.

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