Stop the bleeding
Arterial bleeding – bright red (scarlet) blood is ejected by a strong, jerky-pulsating jet; a large blood stain on clothing or a pool of blood near the wounded. If large arteries are damaged, blood loss incompatible with life can occur within a few minutes.
– immediately press the artery with your fingers (fist) to the bone above the wound ( on the limbs – above the wound, on the neck and head – below the wound or in the wound, you can not press it in the place where the bones are damaged);
– raise the injured limb; in the absence of a fracture, bend as much as possible;
– apply a tourniquet in the absence of a tourniquet, tighten the limb with a twist (belt):
– superimposed on clothing (fabric) above the wound but as close as possible in it – lead by the limb and stretch, pull with the first coil and apply the next coil with less effort, fasten the tourniquet, put a note on the time the tourniquet was applied, do not cover it with a bandage or clothing;
– a tourniquet is applied to the neck without pulse control and left until the doctor arrives, the wound must be sealed;
– a tourniquet is applied to the thigh through a solid object, after which it will be verified that there is no pulse in the popliteal fossa;
– if the tourniquet is applied incorrectly ( blue and swelling of the limb, swelling of the veins ) – immediately remove and reapply .
– treat the wound and apply a sterile bandage;
– ensure peace in the “lying” position, cover the victim and insulate the wounded limb (especially in cold weather), give a warm sweet drink (if there is no abdominal injury);
– immediately deliver to a medical institution (after 1-1.5 hours in summer and 30 minutes in winter, gently loosen the tourniquet for 10-15 minutes by pressing the artery with your finger, then apply above (below) the place of application).
Venous bleeding – dark cherry blood is poured out in a uniform continuous stream.
– apply a pressure bandage;
– when a limb is injured – bend or lift it up as much as possible;
– deliver to a medical facility.
Capillary bleeding – blood oozes like a sponge and usually stops on its own.
– put a bandage on the wound;
– if possible, raise the wounded limb up;
To stop capillary bleeding, you can treat the wound with hydrogen peroxide.
Internal bleeding (in the head, chest, abdomen) can only be stopped on the operating table.
Signs: weakness, dizziness, ringing in the ears, darkening of the eyes, pallor.
– put cold, immediately deliver to a medical facility .
Large loss of blood – lay the victim on his back, raise his arms and legs. If there is no wound in the stomach – drink plenty of sweet tea or water with salt or sugar. An urgent infusion of blood or a substitute is needed .
FRACTURES OF LIMB
Signs of an open fracture : the presence of a wound, often with bleeding; deformity and swelling of the limb; bone fragments are visible.
Signs of a closed fracture : severe pain with movement or load on the limb; deformity and swelling of the limb; cyanotic skin color; limb mobility in an unusual place, its unnatural position.
1. Release from the impact of traumatic factors. Stop the bleeding.
2. Give pain medication as soon as possible.
3. Bandage the wound.
4. Fix the limb with splints.
5. Cover the victim, especially in cold weather.
Splinting Rules : The splint is applied on both sides of the torso and should cover the joints above and below the fracture site. It is tied tightly, evenly, but not tight over clothes and shoes; in places of bone protrusions, a soft material is placed. You can not bandage the tire with a bandage at the level of the fracture.
In the absence of a splint, you can bandage the injured leg to the healthy one, and the arm in a bent position to the body with a scarf or bandage.
In case of a fracture of the fingers and hand , give the fingers a half-bent position (put a dense lump of cotton into the palm), apply a splint from the ends of the fingers to the elbow from the side of the palm. Hang your hand on a scarf.
In case of a fracture of the forearm , turn the arm bent at the elbow joint with the palm to the chest and fix it with two tires on the inside and outside from the fingertips to the elbow joint. Hang your hand on a scarf.
In case of a fracture of the shoulder – put a splint on the area of the forearm and shoulder, hang the arm bent at the elbow joint on a scarf and bandage it to the body. In case of injury of the shoulder joint or scapula – hang the arm bent at the elbow joint on the belt (palm to the stomach), put a roller into the armpit, bandage the arm to the body.
In case of a clavicle fracture – immobilize with a bandage, cotton-gauze rings; for a short time is fixed with a stick placed behind the back.
In case of a fracture of the foot and an injury to the ankle joint , the splint is applied along the inner and outer surfaces from the upper third of the lower leg to the sole and fingertips.
In case of a fracture of the lower leg , a splint is applied along the inner and outer surfaces from the upper third of the thigh to the sole and fingertips.
In case of a hip fracture , tires are superimposed: on the inner surface from the groin to the sole, on the outer surface – from the armpit to the sole.
FRACTURE OF THE SPINE AND PELVIC BONES
Signs of a spinal fracture : back pain at the slightest movement, loss of sensation in the legs (the victim does not feel a pin prick).
1. Calm the victim, administer painkillers, provide first aid for other injuries. DO NOT move the victim, take off his clothes and allow him to move .
2. Transport only on a stretcher with hard bedding (on a shield, door, etc.); in the absence of a hard bedding, transportation lying on the stomach.
In case of a fracture of the cervical spine, apply a massive cotton-gauze bandage in the form of a collar.
Signs of a pelvic fracture : “frog” position, pain in the pelvic area, inability to sit down and stand up, stuck heel syndrome), inability to raise a straight leg.
Lay the victim on a hard, flat surface (shield), bend the legs into the “frog” position, put a tight roller under the knees. Transportation – on a solid shield.
If damage to the cervical spine is suspected, without moving the victim, wrap the neck loosely in several layers with a ribbon of towel, paper (newspaper) 12-14 cm wide to provide support (support) for the back of the head and chin. Secure (loosely) with a bandage or belt.
FOOD, ALCOHOL AND DRUG POISONING
SIGNS – weakness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loose stools, cold sweat, dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, convulsions, fever.
1. Gastric lavage.
2. Give 10 tablets or 1 tablespoon of activated charcoal with water. In its absence – grated crackers, starch, chalk, charcoal. As a laxative – 2 tablespoons of vegetable oil or saline laxative.
3. When the condition improves, give tea or coffee, provide warmth, peace.
4. In case of loss of consciousness and pulse – START REANIMATION.
In case of poisoning with caustic, burning substances, urgent hospitalization is necessary .
– substitute the burn site under a stream of cold water (lower it into water) or apply snow, ice or other cold for 15-20 minutes ( for first and second degree burns without violating the integrity of the blisters );
– treat the burn with panthenol;
– apply a special napkin or clean gauze (bandage), secure with a loose bandage;
– cold at the burn site;
– drink plenty of water (1 teaspoon of salt or soda per 1 liter of water);
– in case of a severe burn, transportation to a medical facility.
DO NOT: lubricate the burn with ointments or grease, open and remove blisters, tear off adhering clothes and foreign bodies, put cotton on the burn, rinse the opened blisters with water, sprinkle with powders.
IF CLOTHES ARE ON FIRE:
– eliminate the effect of fire, throw off burning clothes;
– lay the victim down and roll him on the ground (snow) or quickly cover with a thick cloth (jacket, raincoat, raincoat OZK);
– cool the burns in water, snow for at least 10 minutes until the pain subsides;
– do not pull off burnt clothes, but cut them into pieces, leave the baked ones on the body.
Signs : skin is pale, hard and cold, there is no pulse at the wrists and ankles, loss of sensation, when tapping with a finger – a “wooden sound”.
1. Take the victim to a room with a low temperature. Do not remove clothes and shoes from frostbitten limbs.
2. Immediately cover the injured limbs from external heat with a cooled heat-insulating bandage. External warming of frostbitten parts must not be accelerated. Warmth should arise inside with the restoration of blood circulation.
3. Give plenty of warm drink, small doses of alcohol.
4. Give 1-2 tablets of analgin and deliver to the medical unit.
DO NOT rub frostbitten skin, place frostbitten limbs in warm water or put heating pads on them, lubricate the skin with oil or petroleum jelly.
Normal (“blue” type)
Signs – the skin of the face and neck with a bluish tint, swelling of the vessels of the neck, profuse foamy discharge from the mouth and nose.
1. Immediately after removing the drowned person from the water, turn his face down and lower his head below the pelvis.
2. Clear your mouth of mucus and other things. Press firmly on the root of the tongue. When vomiting and cough reflexes appear, achieve complete removal of water from the respiratory tract and stomach.
3. If the victim is conscious, cover and warm him. Call a doctor.