Display of equipped fortifications to protect personnel and equipment. ways to disguise them. N-I-1.

Engineering training

Topic 1. Engineering equipment and masking positions

Display of equipped fortifications to protect personnel and equipment. ways to disguise them. N-I-1.

1. Demonstration of well-equipped trenches and shelters for personnel

1.1. Field fortifications for personnel (trenches, observation and shelter structures)

Single trench for shooting from a prone machine gun

Single trench for firing from a machine gun from the knee

Single trench for standing machine gun fire

SINGLE TRENCH FOR SHOOTING PRONE

consists of a recess in the ground 170 cm long, 60 cm wide, 30 cm deep and a parapet up to 30 cm high.

When firing from a trench towards one of the flanks, the height of the parapet of the trench from the side of the enemy (from the front) is made 20 cm more than in the firing sector.

The volume of excavated soil is 0.3 m3. The device requires 0.5 man-hours.

SINGLE TRENCH FOR SHOOTING WITH CO-

LENA AND STANDING is arranged by extending the depth of a single trench for prone shooting, respectively, up to 60 cm and 110 cm.

When opening a trench, the soil is thrown forward and to the sides, creating a parapet 40–60 cm high. In the firing sector, the height of the parapet decreases to 30 cm, forming a recess with gentle slopes – an open loophole.

The volume of excavated soil when equipping a single trench for firing from a machine gun from the knee is 0.8 m3; the device requires 1.2 man-hours.

The volume of excavated soil when equipping a single trench for firing from a machine gun while standing is 1.4 m3; 1.5 man-hours are required to make this trench.

Along with single trenches, trenches for two or three people are arranged.

A TRENCH FOR THREE PERSONS, as a rule, has a broken outline in plan. To improve the protection of shooters from small arms fire from the front and from the flanks, the parapet of the trench is arranged with a height of 50-60 cm, and from the rear and in the sectors of fire 30 cm.

The volume of excavated soil for the production of a trench for two shooters is 1.6 m3. It takes 1.5 man-hours to make a trench.

The volume of excavated soil for the production of a trench for three shooters is 3.6 m3. It takes 3.5 man-hours to make a trench.

Trenches for machine guns are arranged for firing lying down, kneeling and standing at the bottom of the ditch.

Trench for two shooters

Prone machine gun trench

A trench for firing a machine gun from the knee

Trench for three shooters

A trench for firing a machine gun while standing

TRENCH FOR SHOOTING FROM A PRONE MACHINE GUN

has a ditch for calculation, a platform for a machine gun and a parapet from the front. In a parapet 30-40 cm high, a loophole is arranged to accommodate the barrel of a machine gun during firing.

The volume of excavated soil for the production of a trench for shooting from a prone machine gun is 0.8 m3. The construction of a trench requires 1.5 man-hours.

IN THE TRENCH FOR SHOOTING FROM A MACHINE GUN WITH

KNEELING AND STANDING at the bottom, the ditch for calculation comes off with a broken outline in plan, and has a depth of 60 cm and 110 cm, respectively.

The volume of excavated soil for the production of a trench for firing a machine gun from the knee is 1.5 m3. It takes 1.5 man-hours to make a trench.

The volume of excavated soil for the production of a trench for firing from a standing machine gun is 2.3 m3. The device requires 2.5 man-hours.

TRENCH FOR MANUAL ANTI-TANK

Grenade launcher is arranged in the same way as a single trench for the shooter. Its difference lies in the fact that from the side opposite to the sector of shelling from a grenade launcher, the parapet is not poured.

Observation facilities

Open observation structure

FACILITIES FOR OBSERVATION

NIYA at command and observation posts are arranged open and closed types.

The structure for observation of an open type of a platoon (company) commander is arranged in the form of a slot 140 cm deep with an attached communication path and a cell for an observer.

For the production of an open-type observation facility for a platoon (company) commander, 10 man-hours are required. The volume of excavated soil in this case should be 5 m3.

Shelter for personnel

Shelters for personnel are intended to maintain combat readiness and ensure the protection of troops from weapons in positions and areas of location.

They are arranged in the form of open and covered slots, dugouts and shelters. The location of shelters should provide the possibility for subunits to quickly occupy their firing positions.

SLOTs, as a rule, are arranged with a capacity for a squad or crew (crew).

Timber products (logs, knurler, poles, boards), brushwood, fascines made of reeds and reeds, as well as various reinforced concrete products, rolled metal and other improvised materials can be used to cover and cover the steepness of the cracks.

Gap with overlapping of poles, knurling or logs in hard ground

In the absence of improvised materials and delivery to the positions of centralized supply elements for

slot devices can be used paper dredging bags and elements of corrugated steel FVS.

A slot with an overlap of poles, knurling or logs is a ditch 150 cm deep, 60 cm wide at the bottom, at least 300 cm long, with an entrance in the form of a ramp or steps from the bottom of the trench or from the surface of the earth. Clothes of coolness are not arranged only when building a gap in hard ground. For the device of overlapping on both sides of the ditch, a parapet is removed at a distance of 50 cm and logs or knurling are laid on leveled platforms across the gap. A layer of soil 30-40 cm thick is poured on top and masked with improvised materials. Before laying the soil, the gaps between the logs are filled with grass, branches, and turf. The entrance to the blocked slot is closed with a mat or a shield of poles. The volume of excavated soil in the manufacture of this slot design is 4 m3. The slot device requires 17 man-hours, poles 0.5 m3. A successively reinforced gap is arranged in medium and hard soils. The slot consists of an entrance part and a bed with a passage depth of 1.35 and 1.0 m, respectively.

it is laid with a protective fence and a hinged shield made of round wood. A ventilation duct with a plug is installed at the end of the slot.

Sequentially reinforced gap:

a – open slot; b – a closed gap without clothes of coolness;, c

– a closed gap with cool clothes and a protective entrance. The volume of excavated soil is 4.7 m3. The device requires 29 man-hours.

When constructing a successively reinforced gap, after its excerpt, the coating is first rolled up and partially covered with soil, and then an inclined dress of steepness is arranged. With such a sequence of construction of the gap, protection of the sheltered personnel from penetrating radiation and light radiation of a nuclear explosion is ensured even before the construction of the structure is completed.

When arranging a gap in soft soils, before laying the roll, vertical clothes of steepness are installed and the sinuses of the gap pit are covered with soil.

MATERIALS REQUIRED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF A SUCCESSIVELY REINFORCED SLOT

Name of materials unit of measurement Quantity
Knurler d=1 cm, L=300 cm PCS.
Poles d=5-7 cm
L=350 cm PCS.
L=100 cm PCS.
Bedding d=8 cm:
L=110 cm PCS.
L=150 cm PCS.
L=300 cm PCS.

Shelters for personnel are built not only from local materials, but also from sets (structures) of industrial production. The greatest use in the troops are collapsible structures, which can be used both for sheltering personnel and for equipping command and control posts.

These include:

– Quick-release construction “Package”.

– Structure made of corrugated steel KVS-U.

Name of shelters Dimensions of the main room, cm overall internal Weight, kg Capacity, persons Transportability
length width height diameter
“Package” (2×195) Zil-131 – 2 sets.
KVS-A 595 with input Zil-131- 1 set.
KVS-U Zil-131 – 2 sets.

Structure made of corrugated steel KVS-A. KEY FEATURES OF THE SHELTER

• Fast-retrievable structure “Package”

QUICKLY REMOVABLE METAL STRUCTURE “PACKAGE” CONSISTS OF:

– 2 cylindrical blocks of the main room;

– vestibule block with an inclined entrance;

– 2 end diaphragms;

– one dismantling partition;

– ZIP;

– elements of internal equipment;

– devices for extraction.

The “Packet” tambour is separated from the main room by a hermetic partition. The entrance to the structure is cone-shaped with a protective hermetic hatch.

With the “Package” set, the FVA-50/25 (FVA-100/50) filtering unit is used, as well as the OPP standard heating furnace, which are completed separately.

CONSTRUCTION OF A STRUCTURE FROM THE PACKAGE SET INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING STAGES:

Breakdown and planting structures on the ground.

· An excerpt of the pit.

· Leveling the bottom of the pit.

· Assembly and installation of the skeleton of the structure in the foundation pit.

· Installation of internal equipment.

· Waterproofing device.

· Embankment of the skeleton with soil and camouflage of the structure.

To assemble the skeleton, a calculation of 7 people is assigned. The calculation can assemble the frame of the structure manually or using a truck crane.

THE STRUCTURE IS REMOVED IN THE FOLLOWING SEQUENCE:

· Internal equipment is being dismantled (FVA and VZU, OPP and DZU, PPU, communications and lighting).

· Blocks of the working room and the vestibule are being prepared for extraction.

· The skeleton of the structure is being removed from the ground and the structures are being laid on the surface of the earth or in a car.

• Corrugated steel structure KVS-U

CONSTRUCTION FROM CAVITY STEEL KVS-U CONSISTS OF;

The main premises

vestibule

· entrance.

The skeleton of the main room of the annular shape is assembled from the elements of the corrugated steel of the FVS (three elements in the ring). The elements of the FVS are connected along the length of the structure with an overlap of one half-wave. The ends of the skeleton of the structure are closed with diaphragms, one of which has FVA fastening elements. The vestibule is separated from the main room by a partition with a hermetic door. On the partition there are fastening parts for the OPP field heating furnace,

openings for the chimney and overpressure valve.

• Corrugated steel structure KVS-A

The entrance is cone-shaped with a protective hermetic hatch. Its design allows the entrance to be positioned at different angles to the vertical (90°, 45°). The optimal angle that provides maximum convenience for entering the structure is an angle of 30°.

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