There are several types of directorial analysis.
Ideological and thematic.
Ideological and thematic analysis – highlights in the work the main, central semantic organization of the material under the concepts of theme and idea.
Director’s intent or action analysis.
1) The most important task is the director’s idea. Unlike a literary idea, the most important task is necessarily formulated in an effective, verbal, invocative form and correlates with a through action (i.e., it has a positive direction – what do you call the viewer to). It answers the question why and why exactly I undertake to shoot this material today. (Explain why a different wording is required.)
2) Grain (V. E. Meyerhold’s term) is a sensual idea that determines the general emotional sensation of a thing. (“Three sisters” – “yearning for a better life.”)
“The grain-essence of the work, its core, expressed in a specific figurative essence. For the concept of grain, you need to understand, which means to understand the author’s attitude to the depicted, the characters, to feel the artistic originality.” V. E. Meyerhold.
Grain can sometimes become the title of a work (“Running”, “Dragon”, “Duck Hunt”,
3) Through action – an effective line of struggle for the proof of the most important task.
4) Counter-through action is an effective line of struggle against the super-task.
Both lines must necessarily be continuous to the end of the story, be conducted by the main characters and be resolved only in the denouement. Sometimes the characters leading through or counter-through action may be absent – but in this case they are led by the author himself (the text “from the author”, the plastic and sound series, the proposed circumstances, the higher power, the author’s genre – in “The Government Inspector”, etc.).
5) Objects of struggle – between what and what a contradiction has arisen and is growing, I.e. identification of conflicting ideas confronted by the author.
But the dramatic conflict arises, develops and is resolved only in the clash of individual characters. Therefore, having found the main conflicting ideas, we personalize them, i.e. we determine which of the characters is the bearer of which idea or its variations. So we define the subjects of the struggle.
6) The subjects of the struggle are the characters-carriers of the conflicting ideas of the work. Those. which of the characters is the bearer of the author’s ideas and counter-ideas.
7) The subject of the struggle is the object or principles of life for which the main participants in the conflict are fighting. Those. what is the struggle for in the conflict of ideas and in the conflict of characters.
8) The super-task of the character is the main “I want” of the character, what he achieves in the process of struggle, as well as his work for a through or counter-through action (as a result!).
9) Directing genre (internal genre) – the nature of the events taking place and the author’s (director’s) attitude towards them, which also determines the audience’s perception of what is happening.
10) Atmosphere – the air of the product, i.e. how the main characters breathe in your stuff. The atmosphere should not go beyond the author’s intention.
The atmosphere, like the air in reality, can be dense and rarefied, thunderous and sunny, dark, stuffy, fresh, hot cool, etc. Creating an atmosphere is purely a director’s and cameraman’s task.
EXAMPLE ANALYSIS SCHEMES
1. Analysis of a work of art
1. Determine the theme and idea / main idea / of this work; Problems,
affected in it; the pathos with which the work is written;
2. Show the relationship between plot and composition;
3. Consider the subjective organization of the work / artistic image
person, techniques for creating a character, types of images-characters, a system of
4. Find out the author’s attitude to the topic, idea and heroes of the work;
5. Determine the features of functioning in this work of literature
figurative and expressive means of the language;
6. Determine the features of the genre of the work and the style of the writer.
Note: according to this scheme, you can write an essay-review about the book you read, with
this in the work to present also:
1. Emotional and evaluative attitude to what is read.
2. A detailed justification for an independent assessment of the characters of the heroes of the work,
their actions and experiences.
3. Detailed substantiation of the conclusions.
2. Analysis of a prose literary work
When starting to analyze a work of art, first of all, it is necessary to
pay attention to the specific historical context of the work in the period
creation of this work of art. It is necessary to distinguish between
the concepts of historical and historical-literary situation, in the latter case
• literary trends of the era;
• the place of this work among the works of other authors written in this
• creative history of the work;
• assessment of the work in criticism;
• originality of perception of this work by contemporaries of the writer;
• evaluation of the work in the context of modern reading;
Next, we should turn to the question of ideological and artistic unity.
work, its content and form (in this case, the content plan is considered –
what the author wanted to say and the plan of expression – how did he manage to do it)
Ideological and thematic analysis
1) Material – situations of life or art, cases, objects or objects of observation and reflection – i.e. the main source of fantasy, the fabric of the work.
2) Theme ( about what? ) – the problem raised by the author, the main motive of the work. It is formulated by you (with your authorship) or is with the author in the process of analyzing the work. It is important that your formulation of the topic, on the one hand, be close to you and touch you, and on the other hand, be close, correspond to the essence of the problem raised by the author and his perception of the world, which are read from the work, biographical and historical materials, etc.
3) The idea ( about what? ) – what, by raising this problem, the author is trying to convey to the viewer (reader, listener, etc.). Embodies a certain side of the author’s worldview. For art, this is the main, main idea, the idea that determines the content of the work, its characters, their ways of existence, relationships, scene, genre, plot, dramaturgy and all other elements of the work.
4) Dramaturgy is the basis, the backbone of the plot. The totality of all the relationships of characters among themselves, with the world around them and with their own person, as well as the viewer (reader) and reality. Determines the emergence, development and resolution of the main and particular conflicts of the work. Dramatic action – an action with an unpredictable result (unlike everyday), but natural according to higher logic. Dramaturgy draws the dialectic of goals, their clash, from which new goals are born. Dramaturgy removes the unequivocal condemnation or justification of the hero. The keyword of the drama is choice. The characters in the drama never achieve what they want, but always more, less, and even the exact opposite.
5) Conflict – The main driving force of the work. The conflict reveals the character, the essence of the characters. This is a complex dramatic organism, which is always based on a struggle, a clash of interests (“I want” characters). The main difference between a dramatic conflict and a conflict in reality is that the contradictions are always aggravated to the extreme. The conflict can be global (historical, public, state, etc.), social (between social, public, industrial groups) or private (persons, families, etc.). Dramatic conflict arises, develops and is resolved only in the clash of individual characters. Conflict is always a process.
Dramatic conflict must carry, in addition to aggravation, also a sense of surprise, artistic necessity and authenticity for the viewer.
The feeling of artistic necessity arises when the most unexpected events, situations and turns are caused by the actions of the characters.
A sense of authenticity is achieved by the precise motivation of the characters’ actions.
6) Character – a set of individually unique features formed in the course of a person’s life, through which his attitude and goals are revealed (“I want” a character).
7) An act is an action, the result of an assessment of the situation (circumstances), which forces a person to actively act in order to resolve the situation in his favor.
8) A character is a subject-bearer of certain elements of the author’s intention, through which the author reveals some part of the general idea or anti-idea that he needs, the bearer of which is this character.
9) Plot – history, summary, presentation of actions, relationships and events in the work in their sequence (chronology of the development of the conflict of the plot). Backbone, the basis of the plot.
10) Plot – the story of the emergence, development and resolution of the conflict in dramatic situations, revealing the author’s intention (the theme and idea of the work) through the characters’ characters and their relationships.
11) Leitmotif – the main motive (image, line, etc.) passing through the entire work and serving to reveal the main theme.
12) Counter-theme – a motive that opposes the main one, conflicts with it. The same goes through the entire work.
13) Additional motives – themes that arise in parallel with the main theme of the work. They develop the main theme or contrast with it, expanding the scope of capturing the phenomena, the main problem and the multiplicity of the author’s idea.
14) Genre (literary) – a view, the author’s point of view on current events. Each genre has its own laws of development. One of the criteria for defining a genre is the way the main conflict is resolved:
a) tragedy – carries acute social conflicts, fundamental problems of human existence (personality with fate, society, the world, gods, etc.), expressed in a tense form of struggle between strong characters and passions. Usually ends with the physical death of the main character at the time of resolution of the main conflict of the work (denouement).
b) drama – ends with the death or departure of the protagonist as a resolution of the main conflict or from the circumstances accompanying the main conflict (leitmotifs).
c) comedy – in the final it always has a “Happyend”, i.e. a happy ending. Those. the conflict is resolved by the unexpected luck of positive characters (not necessarily the main character, for example, “Tartuffe”), leading to victory. Distinguish: comedy of characters and comedy of positions.
sitcom (based on comedic situations in which the characters find themselves);
comedy of characters (building on comic types or character traits of characters).
d) mystery – an action based on a mythological plot, resolved with the help of a miracle.
e) parable – the idea is conveyed in the form of an allegory, allegory or through a figurative association. The main idea (the meaning of the parable) is usually never expressed directly and implies an independent decoding by the viewer (reader). (An example is the parable of the talents.)
f) a fable is a simplified version of a parable. The idea is transmitted in the form of an allegorical allegory and the main idea is expressed at the end or even at the beginning of the work directly or almost directly and does not require special knowledge, culture or intellect from the perceiver to perceive it. (“How many times have they told the world…”).
g) morality – an expanded and more dramatic version of the parable, however, the way the author’s idea is presented is similar to a fable (that is, it is expressed almost directly by one or more characters or from the author). An allegorical religious drama, the characters of which personified various vices and virtues (Avarice, Hope, Gluttony, Friendship, Envy, etc.)
h) farce – a lightweight everyday exaggerated comedy-satirical action, with situations and characters brought to the grotesque.
i) buffoonery – an emphatically exaggerated, exaggerated buffoonery situation with often caricatured characters, actions and situations.
j) anecdote – a short satirical story with an unexpected twist in the finale.
k) tragicomedy – has signs of both tragedy and tragedy. The author emphasizes the comic in the tragic and the tragic in the comic, i.e. it is based on the relativity of the existing criteria of attitude to situations, heroes, etc.
m) mystery buff
15) The “mystery” of a work is the basis of any intrigue.
Three kinds of secrets: 1. The hero knows, the viewer does not know.
2. The viewer knows, the hero does not know.
3. The hero does not know and the viewer does not know.
15) Intrigue – confusing the situations of the plot with the help of complex twists and turns, unexpected twists and turns in the action, interweaving and clashes of characters’ interests, which allows you to keep the viewer’s (reader’s) attention.
Architectonics – (from the ancient Greek ἀρχιτεκτονική – building art) – a general aesthetic plan for constructing a work of art, the relationship of its parts.
Architectonics of the work
The concept of “architectonic” construction was first put into circulation by V. Hildebrand, denoting a constructive principle according to which “… a work of art is a whole, closed in itself, each element of which receives its meaning not in relation to anything outside the work located
1) Exposition – usually (but not necessarily) the first part of the work, in which the main characters, the place and time of the action and the initial circumstances, the preliminary alignment of forces and the aspirations of the heroes of the work are presented. But besides this, in the exposition, the viewer must also understand the genre, language and degree of conditionality of the whole thing and its global rhythm – without this, he will not be able to begin to perceive the plot. Those. before the story begins, the viewer must understand how it will be told, understand the conditions of the game of the thing as a whole.
2) The plot is the beginning of the main conflict, and hence the action, the struggle of the characters, generated by a conflict of interests and destroying the initial situation. Dramatic knot tie.
In good dramaturgy (after all, the script, and indeed the whole film, is a work of dramaturgy), especially a screen work, the exposition is usually combined with the plot, i.e. the performance takes place simultaneously with the beginning of the conflict, in action, which allows you to immediately catch the attention of the viewer. If you missed attention at this stage, it will be more difficult to catch it, the further you go. (M. I. Romm said that “bad dramaturgy, as a rule, is associated with inactive exposition.”)
3) Ups and downs – sudden changes in the fate of the character, opposite to his and (or) the viewer’s expectations. Peripetia is a chain of events that develops conflict in the relationships of characters. The word peripetia is translated from Greek as “an unexpected incident.” Each new event changes the relationship of forces and “I want” characters, and hence their behavior. Moreover, each new event should exacerbate the conflict compared to the previous one. It is this method that makes it possible, on the one hand, to hold the audience’s attention, and on the other (which is the main task of the author) – to consider the behavior, and therefore the goals and characters of the characters from different angles, to show their different facets, so that, using the sensory perception of the viewer , to endure, together with him, these heroes, as a result, their assessments. Those. for the author, vicissitudes are a way of exploring his characters, observing them in various situations, and through them, exploring human nature as a whole.
The vicissitudes ensure the continuity of the action and the growth of the conflict.
The increase in conflict is achieved:
a) the introduction into the conflict of more and more active forces, positive and negative, more and more influential and dangerous characters;
b) the introduction of new circumstances that exacerbate the conflict, reinforcing the contradictions of the main characters;
d) exacerbation and activation of the old and the introduction of new, more dangerous and sharp ways in the struggle of the characters;
e) an increase in the number of characters involved in the struggle on both sides – the growth of action to group and mass;
All these techniques can be used to exacerbate the action, either individually or together.
4) The climax is the ultimate aggravation of the conflict, bringing it to its logical limit, the highest point, requiring the heroes to exert all their strength to the limit and leading to a turn in the whole action. and the situation comes to an explosion, turning the whole world of the characters and the attitude of the viewer towards them. This explosion is called a turn. Often (but not always) the idea of the work is revealed or sounds almost openly here.
5) Stop – a temporary stop, slowdown, decline, as if a brake on the action, a decrease in the intensity of the conflict before a turn and (or) culmination. This is always a trouble-free method of preparing the viewer for the main breakthrough of the action, the ultimate aggravation of the conflict. Gives the opportunity to relax the viewer and use this relaxation for a stronger blow. (Meyerhold’s “rollback” technology: the more the bowstring is pulled, the farther, faster and more powerful the arrow flies; the stronger the swing, the more powerful the blow, etc.
6) Turn – the resolution of the plot in an unexpected way, the breakdown of all relationships and the logical – sensual resolution of the conflict. It is here that catharsis (“purification”) occurs and most often the main author’s idea is revealed – why this work was created.
At this break, the essential, main “I want” characters are revealed, as if their essence is manifested, and the author’s assessment is given, not necessarily in plain text, to each of the main characters. It can fall, depending on the task of the author, either at the peak of the climax or at the denouement of the thing. Turn – should always carry a massive push to resolve the topic, not necessarily complete, but a powerful push on the way to it.
7) Resolution – the resolution of the conflict and the relationship of all its heroes or bringing them to a point or situation where the struggle becomes meaningless or useless, the cessation of the struggle. Unleashing all the dramatic knots of action, unfinished local conflict lines of the work and completing all the main storylines of the work. Sometimes combined with turning into one.
The denouement can be closed – to complete the theme, or open – to leave the viewer space for their own speculation about the fate of the characters. Technologically, the denouement performs the functions of slowing down the tempo-rhythm and returning the viewer to reality.
8) The law of the “Golden Section” – the center of the composition (the most psychologically strong point in terms of impact on the viewer) is always 2/3 from the beginning of the work relative to its total length (volume).
Organization of the event on the screen :
1. In order for the viewer to understand that a new event has occurred in the action, it must be accentuated, emphasized on the screen. In this case, the new event also becomes an “attention hook”.
2. Emphasis should occur only by artistic means with the obligatory use of visual means (regardless of the artistic, semantic and quantitative richness of the text).
3. The strength of the artistic means used must be strictly correlated with the price of the event.
4. A change of event must necessarily carry a change in tempo-rhythm and a change in the way the material is presented (method of filming, atmospheric-tonal, mise-en-scene, sound solution, etc.).
5. The construction of the event must always carry all the elements of the construction of architectonics: from the exposition through the climax to the dramatic turn-denouement.
6. The final turn of an event should always become the beginning of the next event at the same time.
7. In each event, it is necessary to identify and formulate your leading motive – the main sensual-emotional theme, the “seed” of the event – which will develop and intensify in it, resolving at the moment of the turn.
1) A dramatic event is a breakdown of the action that is essential for a given plot, leading to a turn in the development of the main conflict of the dramatic action and, consequently, a change in the ups and downs. The chain of events forms an effective series of dramaturgy. Building a plot on the screen is always a move from event to event. A dramatic event is always a process that develops over time. The dramatic development and aggravation of an event is determined by the leading circumstance of this event and the leading circumstance of the whole thing.
2) The leading circumstance is the main circumstance that pushes the whole action of a thing to development and, as a result, to a super-task.
3) Finding a new event : something significant happens that causes a change in the balance of power of the characters leading the action and (or) their goals, the motivation for actions, caused by a change in the leading circumstance, the act of the hero, or the like. After the change of the event, the characters can no longer exist in the same way as before.
4) The price of the event – how significant it is for the entire course of action and for all the characters involved in the conflict – that is, how much it changes the balance of power of the characters.
5) The initial circumstance is an aggravated conflict situation that underlies the entire history of the plot. It is her result that the viewer sees at the beginning, and it is reported about her in the exposition.
6) Initiating event – an event without which the action of the plot cannot begin. In the initial event lies the nature of the feelings of the work and is always the key to the resolution of the conflict. The initial event may occur at the beginning or (more often) before the beginning of the plot and be reported by the author as the action develops, at any place. Clarification of the initial event may even be the final turn-out of the action (detective). The initial event is generated by the initial circumstance or even is located in it.
7) The first (main) event (starting event) is an event that starts a conflict, a dramatic action. This is the first important “suddenly” thing that pushes the characters together, pushes the plot into action.
8) The main event is the main event of the plot, usually carrying the grain of its turn, revealing the main character traits of the main characters and the author’s intention, the culmination of the work.
G. A. Tovstonogov singled out 5 events: initial, main, central, final and main, but then such a rigid classification was abandoned, as well as the “pieces” of Stanislavsky.