Abbot – the abbot of a monastery (abbey).
Absolutism is a form of government in which the monarch has unlimited supreme power.
The altar is a place in the church where only clergymen, men, could enter.
Alchemy is a pseudoscience, the purpose of which was to obtain gold by chemical compounds of various substances.
Albigensians – members of a heretical sect in southern France of the 12th-13th centuries, who denied the dogmas of absolutism.
The Almoravids are members of the military-religious movement in Northwest Africa.
The Althing is the assembly of the people in Iceland.
Anathema – excommunication from the church, combined with a curse.
Apse – a semicircular vaulted niche in the temple, directed to the east.
Arianism is an early Christian heresy, the supporters of which considered Jesus Christ to be the lowest creation in relation to God the Father.
Asceticism is the suppression of desires, the denial of luxury and even most comforts, restrictions on food and sleep, inflicting physical suffering on oneself in order to participate in the suffering of Jesus Christ for the atonement of sins.
Astrology is the study of the relationship between the location of stars and planets and events in the lives of people and nations.
Ases are the gods of the ancient Scandinavians.
Auto-da-fe is the solemn execution of the sentence of the Inquisition.
Basilica is one of the architectural forms of a Christian church.
A ballad is a folk poetic tale.
Baron – a title of nobility, below the count, a representative of the highest titled nobility.
Corvee is the obligation of dependent peasants to perform field work for their master.
Bedouins are desert nomads, Arabs.
The Benedictines are the monks of the oldest monastic brotherhood in Western Europe, founded by St. Benedict.
Beneficiary – land ownership transferred for life use subject to military service; church office and related income.
The Berbers are a nomadic people of Northwest Africa.
A berserker is an Old Norse warrior who dedicated himself to the god Odin, who went berserk during battle, fought without armor and was considered invulnerable.
The Britons are a Celtic people who inhabited Britain.
Bulla – a papal decree that is binding on believers, less often – an imperial decree.
The burgher is a full citizen.
Vagants are wandering schoolboys (students).
The Waldenses, a heretical sect in the 12th-13th centuries, mainly in France and Italy, opposed the church hierarchy and property, for universal asceticism.
A vassal is a person who has received a fief from a lord in exchange for service.
The Great Migration of Peoples is the migration of numerous peoples under the pressure of the Huns, as a result of which the Western Roman Empire ceased to exist.
Wergeld – among the Germans, compensation for the murder, brought by the offender to the victim’s family.
Vikings are Scandinavian warriors who set off for glory and prey in foreign lands.
A stained-glass window is an image assembled from colored glass and usually placed in windows.
The Eastern Slavs are the ancestors of the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples.
Galea is a type of Mediterranean ship.
The Hansa is an alliance of North German merchants and trading cities.
The Estates General is the estate-representative assembly of France.
Duke is the title of a major feudal lord.
Gozes – (beggars) – participants in the anti-Spanish struggle during the Dutch revolution.
A ghetto is a part of a city set aside for the forced settlement of Jews.
A guild is an association of merchants.
The Glagolitic alphabet is one of two early Slavic alphabets.
Hospitallers are members of the military knightly order of St. Jon of Jerusalem (Joannites).
Gothic – the architectural style of the 12th-16th centuries, mainly church.
Count – in the Frankish Empire – the representative of the king in a certain district, later – one of the highest titles of the European nobility.
Humanism – a direction in the philosophical and social thought of the Renaissance, which set as its goal the study of the sciences of man – philology and moral philosophy; the worldview of the Renaissance, which put man at the center of the world.
The Hussites are followers of the Czech reformer Jan Hus.
The Danes are a Germanic people, the ancestors of modern Danes.
Tithing – one tenth of property and income – a tax on the upkeep of the church.
Jihad – (effort) – a peaceful or armed struggle to strengthen Islam (against infidels – non-Muslims).
Zen Buddhism is one of the branches of Buddhism that has become especially widespread in Japan.
Dima – in the Byzantine Empire, self-governing organizations in cities, created around teams of equestrians on urban hippodromes.
Dirham is an oriental silver coin.
A dispute is a scientific dispute.
A dogma is a position of dogma approved by the church leadership, obligatory for believers.
Doge is the head of the Venetian (for life) and Genoese (elected for a fixed term) republics.
Domain – own land holdings of a noble (royal) family.
Dominicans are members of a mendicant monastic order founded by St. Dominic. They took a vow of poverty and an obligation to preach against heretics.
Donjon (bergfried, kiip) is the main, most fortified tower of the castle.
Drakkar is a Viking ship.
Spiritual and knightly orders are organizations of European knights created to recapture and protect the Holy Land.
Danlo – “The area of Danish law” – the part of England that remained under the rule of the Danes.
Bishop – “overseer” – the spiritual head of the administrative-territorial unit – the Diocese, embracing one or more provinces of the state; at the head of the group of dioceses was the archbishop.
Heresy is a doctrine recognized by the church as false.
A heretic is a person who adheres to a false doctrine, heresy.
The juggler is a wandering singer and poet.
Zoroastrianism is an ancient religion of the Iranian peoples.
Hidalgo is a Spanish nobleman.
Icon – a picturesque image of God, the Mother of God, scenes from the Bible.
Iconoclasts and iconodules – in Byzantium, supporters of a different attitude towards the images of God and saints.
Imam – (“primate”) – for Muslims, either the person in charge of the mosque and “coming” during public prayer, or the spiritual head.
An empire is a state consisting of territories deprived of economic and political independence and ruled from one center.
Investiture is a symbolic introduction to a position by transferring an object from hand to hand.
An indulgence is an absolution of sins and a certificate of absolution.
The Inquisition is the organization of the Catholic Church for the prosecution of heretics and the eradication of heresies.
Interdict – a ban – a temporary, without excommunication, a ban on the performance of worship and religious rites.
Islam – “submission” – Islam – one of the most common religions that arose in Arabia in the 7th century, the founder – Muhammad.
Confession is a Christian sacrament, consisting in revealing one’s sins to a priest and receiving forgiveness from him in the name of Jesus Christ.
Judaism – on behalf of Judas, the ancestor of one of the Hebrew tribes, and the state inhabited by this tribe – the Jews – the religion of the Jews, the Holy Scripture for the Jews – the Old Testament.
Kaganate – a country headed by a kagan (the title of a sovereign among some eastern peoples).
Calligraphy is the art of beautiful writing.
Canon – strict rules for the design of temples.
Chapter – “kaput” – head, head – a council composed of clergy under the bishop or the leadership of the order.
Capitulary – a collection of decrees of the Frankish kings.
The caravel is a type of European ship, common in the 15th century.
The cardinal – “chief” – in the Catholic Church is the highest clergyman, below only the pope, the cardinals are the closest advisers and assistants to the pope and elect him from their midst.
Catholicism, Catholicism – “katholikos” – “universal” – one of the directions of Christianity, which took shape in Western Europe; otherwise, the Latin Church.
The cathedral is the main cathedral of the church district – the temple in which the bishop serves and where his “cathedral” is located – the episcopal throne.
Cyrillic is one of two Slavic alphabets.
The clergy are the clergy.
A cleric is a member of the clergy.
Columns – “settlers” – in the late Roman Empire, tenants attached to the land of small plots of land belonging to large landowners.
College – an organization at a medieval university that provides housing, food and study for a certain number of students.
Communes – cities in France, freed from the power of the lord.
Condottieri – in Italy 14 – 16 centuries. leaders of military detachments hired for the service of city-communes and sovereigns.
Concordat – “agreement” – an agreement between the pope, as the head of the church, and the state, regulating relations between them and the position of the church in the state.
Consistory – in Catholicism – a special meeting with the pope; in Protestantism, the governing body of a religious community.
The king is the ruler (leader, king) of the Scandinavians.
Koran – “reading” – the holy book of Muslims.
Cortes – class-representative bodies in the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula.
A crusader is a person who, at the call of the Pope, has taken a vow to make an armed pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Curia – “meeting place” – the highest deliberative body under kings and popes (Roman curia), consisting of the closest advisers and senior officials.
Courtesy – the rules of chivalrous behavior.
Electors – the highest spiritual and secular princes of the Holy Roman Empire, who had the right to choose the emperor.
The Lombards are a Germanic people.
The Landtag is an organ of class representation in the possessions that were part of the Holy Roman Empire.
A legate is a papal envoy.
Legists – lawyers, advisers to the king.
A letter is a single letter made of metal for printing books.
Personal dependence is the lack of freedom to dispose of one’s own personality.
Lord – in England – a noble person, the owner of large land holdings.
Moors is the European designation for the Muslims of Spain and North Africa.
Mayordom – “manager of the palace” – the highest court and government position in the Frankish kingdom under the Merovingians.
A magnate is a representative of the highest aristocracy.
The macrocosm is the universe as a whole.
The Mamluks are the Sultan’s guard in Egypt, who actually ruled the country from the 13th century.
The Marranos are Jews who converted to Christianity in Spain.
The master is a full-fledged craftsman, a member of the workshop, the owner of his own workshop.
Madrasah is a Muslim educational institution for boys.
Internecine war – a war between feudal lords to expand the boundaries of their estates.
The minstrel is a court poet and singer.
Mass is the central daily worship service in Catholicism, Mass.
Microcosm – man, as part of the universe.
The minbar is the elevation in the mosque from which the sermon is read.
A miniature is a small pictorial representation in a handwritten book.
Minnesingers – “singers of love” – German lyric singer-poets who sang of knightly love.
Myrrh – a special church oil used in chrismation – the rite of anointing the forehead, hands, chest, eyes, ears, which meant the consecration of a person; used at the coronation of a king.
Mysticism – “mysterious” – a religious doctrine that allowed direct communication with God.
A metropolitan is a bishop of a metropolis, i.e. the main city of an ecclesiastical province, which includes several ordinary bishoprics.
A mihrab is a recess in the wall of a mosque, indicating the direction of Mecca.
Mosaic – an image of multi-colored pebbles or pieces of colored glass.
Monasticism is a religious group whose members (monks) take vows of renunciation of all family and social ties, property, setting the goal of saving the soul.
Moriscos are Arabs in Spain converted to Christianity.
Mullah is the head of the Muslim community.
Allotment – a piece of land that was at the disposal of the peasant.
Subsistence farming is an organization of the economy in which everything necessary is produced locally, and not bought on the market, and in which nothing is produced for the purpose of sale.
Negus is the title of the ruler of Ethiopia.
Nave – part of the temple, the space between two adjacent longitudinal rows of columns or between one such row and a longitudinal wall.
Normans is the common name for the Scandinavian peoples, common in the rest of Europe.
A vow is an obligation not to do something, an obligation to follow something.
Quit – the duty of dependent peasants – regular payments to the master in the form of food or money.
The community is an organization of peasants that regulates all the main aspects of life in a medieval village.
Bodies of estate representation – meetings of representatives of the main estates of the land, convened by the sovereign in case of political necessity.
Order – a centralized organization of monks who have adopted the same charter; during the Crusades – also organizations of knights who, in addition to monastic vows, took an oath to fight non-Christians (spiritual knightly orders).
An ordinance is a royal decree.
Orthodoxy is a doctrine approved by the highest church authorities.
Excommunication is exclusion from a religious community or from the church as a whole.
Remission is the forgiveness of sins given by a priest after confession and repentance.
Pilgrims (pilgrims) are wanderers who set off on a journey to visit distant shrines and thereby relieve their souls from sins.
Pilgrimage – the journey of believers to places marked by special holiness; the name arose from the custom of bringing palm leaves from Palestine.
Pantokrator – “Almighty” – i.e. Jesus Christ as the supreme ruler of the universe.
Pope – “father” – the head of the Catholic Church, the simultaneous bishop of Rome.
Parliament is the body of estate representation in England, the legislature.
The patriciate is the upper layer of the townspeople: the most influential and wealthy families that had power in the city.
Duties – corvee and dues, which were supposed to be performed by peasants for feudal lords.
An apprentice is a craftsman who has completed his apprenticeship and works for a master for a fee.
Prevost – in France, an official appointed by the king, exercising administrative and judicial power in the district.
A privilege is an advantage, an exclusive right granted to someone in contrast to others.
The vestibule is a room at the western main entrance to the temple.
Parish – the lowest administrative-church unit, including the staff of the church and members of the community (parishioners).
Protector – in England – regent, ruler under an incapacitated monarch.
Peer – the title of representatives of the highest aristocracy in France and England, in relation to which the monarch was “first among equals.”
A rabbi is the head of the community of Jews in Judaism.
City Hall – the building that housed the state council in cities that used self-government.
Reichstag – an imperial assembly – in Germany, a collection of representatives of the imperial estates – electors, princes and imperial cities.
Reconquista – “conquest” – the displacement by Christians of Muslim rulers from the Iberian Peninsula.
Relic – the preserved remains (relics) of the saints and objects belonging to them, which in the eyes of believers had a special attractive and beneficent power.
Reformers – supporters of deep changes – the reform of the church.
A rose is a round stained-glass window in a cathedral.
Romanesque style – from lat. “Roma” – Rome – the architectural style of the 10th -12th centuries.
A usurer is a person who lends money to someone, and then enriches himself by returning it with interest.
Ordination is a rite of passage to the rank of priest or bishop.
Knights are a particularly privileged class of professional warriors. These are petty feudal lords who did not have their own vassals.
The saga is a Scandinavian historical narrative.
Samurai is a class of professional warriors in Japan.
Saracens – the usual designation in the West for all Muslims, especially Arabs and Turks.
Shogun – “commander in chief” – the title of the actual ruler in Japan.
A sect is a religious group that has broken away from the mainstream church.
A seigneur is a lord, a landowner who has peasants and vassals dependent on him.
A synagogue is a community of believers and a prayer house in Judaism.
Shinto is a traditional Japanese religion.
Skald is an Old Norse poet.
The scriptorium is a workshop for copying and decorating manuscripts.
Cathedral – a large Christian temple, as well as a meeting of the highest clergy within the state or the entire church.
An estate is a large group of people occupying a similar position in society, and, as a rule, passing on their status from generation to generation.
Foreman – the head of the craft workshop, elected by the masters.
Sunnah is a collection of sayings of Muhammad that is not included in the Qur’an.
Sunnis are supporters of one of the two directions in Islam – Sunnism.
Schism is a split in the church.
Scholasticism – “school knowledge” – a method of acquiring knowledge through a strict logical interpretation of the Holy Scriptures and the writings of especially authoritative writers.
The suzerain is the supreme lord.
The Templars (templars) are members of the oldest spiritual and knightly order.
Theology is theology, the science of the divine.
The transept is the transverse nave in a church.
Troubadours are lyrical poets-singers in southern France who sang of knightly love.
Trouvers are lyrical poets-singers of Northern France who sang of chivalrous love.
Tournament is a military competition of knights.
Ulus – the hereditary inheritance of the Mongol ruler.
The university is a corporation of masters and scholars who have come together to acquire and increase knowledge.
Union – union, association (between dynasties, states or churches).
Charter – craft rules that are binding on all members of the workshop.
An apprentice is an assistant to the master, who worked for him for free, but in this way received skills and knowledge.
Fablio – in France, a short humorous story in verse.
Feud – hereditary land ownership, provided under the condition of military service.
A feudal lord is a feudal lord.
Feudalism is a system of relations in medieval society based on the distribution of land not in ownership, but on certain conditions.
Feudal lords – members of the ruling class in medieval society – the main owners of the land.
Feudal ladder – relations between feudal lords in medieval society. The richer the feudal lord, the higher he is on the feudal ladder.
Feudal fragmentation is a period in the history of the state, when its territory broke up into separate small independent possessions.
The Franciscans are members of a mendicant order founded by St. Francis.
Hajj is a pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Khazars are a Turkic people who subjugated large territories of the North Caucasus, the Volga region, and the Northern Black Sea region by the 8th century.
Caliph – “deputy” (prophet or even God) – the secular and spiritual head of Muslims.
Harakiri is a Japanese method of suicide by ripping open one’s stomach.
Hijra – the migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina), the starting point of the Muslim calendar.
The church council is a meeting of the highest church ranks.
Workshop – “feast” – an organization of artisans of one or more specialties.
Cistercians are monks of the Cistercian order.
The Jurchens are Tungus tribes who subjugated part of the North Caucasus in the 12th century.
Sharia is a body of Islamic law, both secular and spiritual.
Schwank – “jokes” – in Germany, a short humorous poetic story.
A masterpiece – “the main work” – a product that had to be made by an apprentice in order to pass the exam and become a master.
The sheriff is the representative of the English king in a separate county.
Supporters of a special direction – Shiism in Islam.
Emir – “ruler” – in Muslim countries, the title of a military leader, ruler, prince.
Earl is a noble person among the Anglo-Saxons.
Janissaries have been a special army in Turkey since the 14th century.
A fair is a large market, regularly (initially annually) organized in the same place at the same time.