TOPIC 1. COMMUNICATION AS A BASIC CATEGORY OF PSYCHOLOGY
1. Broad and narrow definition of communication.
2. Dialogic as a characteristic of subject-subject relations.
3. Levels of communication analysis.
4. The structure of communication.
5. Types of communication.
6. Functions of communication.
1 . Kagan M.S. The world of communication. M., 1988, p.3-62 (the problem of communication in the history of culture); pp.199-251 (types and varieties of communication); pp.283-313 (functions of communication).
2. Kagan M.S., Etkind A.M. Communication as a value and as creativity // Issues of psychology,
1988, no. 4.
3. Krizhanskaya Yu.S., Tretyakov V.P. Grammar of communication. L., 1990.
4. Lomov B.F. Methodological and theoretical problems of psychology. M., 1984, pp. 242-248 (communication as a basic category of psychology).
5. Sosnin V.A., Lunev P.A. Learning to communicate: mutual understanding, interaction, negotiations, training. M., 1993, p.12-50 (types of purposeful communication).
1. Bakhtin M.M. Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. M., 1972, p. 433-460 (dialogue by Dostoevsky)
1. Broad and narrow definition of communication
A person becomes a person in a society of other people. This is due primarily to the fact that human activity is inherently social, collective, distributed among people. In the process of communication, there is a mutual exchange of activities, their methods and results, as well as ideas, ideas, feelings. Communication acts as an independent and specific form of activity of the subject. Unlike objective activity, the result of communication is not the transformation of an object, but a change in relations between people. If subject activity can be described by the “subject-object” scheme (a person acts on an object), then communication covers a special class of relations – subject-subject relations, which are not an impact, but an interaction.
Communication is a complex, multifaceted process of establishing and developing contacts between people, generated by the needs of joint activities and including the exchange of information, the development of a unified interaction strategy, the perception and understanding of another person (Brief Psychological Dictionary, 1985).
“Communication acts as the most important determinant of the entire mental system, its structure, dynamics and development” (B.F. Lomov), because:
1. In the process of communication, there is a mutual exchange of activities, their methods and results, ideas, ideas, feelings.
2. Communication acts as an independent and specific form of activity of the subject, its result is not a transformed object, but a relationship.
Therefore, for general psychology, it is of paramount importance to study the role of communication in the formation and development of various forms and levels of mental reflection, in the mental development of the individual, in the formation of individual consciousness, the psychological make-up of the personality, especially how individuals master the historically established means and methods of communication and what influence it affects mental processes, states and properties.
Communication and the psyche are intrinsically linked. In the acts of communication, it is as if the presentation of the “inner world” of the subject to other subjects is carried out, and at the same time this very act presupposes the existence of such an “inner world”.
Thus, the category of communication covers a special class of relations – subject-subject.
Communication is such a joint activity of people, the participants of which relate to each other and to themselves as subjects. In psychological terms, from such an understanding of communication follows a complex of its cognitive, emotional and behavioral parameters:
– perception of the uniqueness of the partner;
– experiencing its value ;
– giving him freedom .
These are the determining factors of communication, their absence leads to another type of interpersonal interaction: management, service, communication (M.S. Kagan, Etkind).
Dialogicality as a characteristic of subject-subject relations
The main characteristic of subject-subject relations is their dialogue .
The concept of “dialogical” was introduced by M. Bakhtin in the analysis of Dostoevsky’s work. The main achievement of Dostoevsky, according to Bakhtin, is a polyphonic novel, a feature of which is that the ideological material is presented in a number of independent and contradictory philosophical constructions defended by its characters. Among them, far from in the first place are the philosophical views of the author himself.
The dialogical method is a special way of representing the inner world of characters, which allows their personal contents to interact freely. The very process of this interaction is a dialogue, and the forms of interaction are various types of dialogical relations.
Dialogue is a free interaction of personal contents .
The unity of thought and attitude to it is that indivisible unit between which interaction is possible.
Expressing one’s attitude to an object means determining one’s position in the system of socially significant relations in relation to other people, and, therefore, implies a communicative attitude. Outside the communicative situation, the expression of one’s attitude to any object has no meaning.
S.L. Bratchenko (Interpersonal dialogue and its main attributes/Psychology with a human face): dialogue, the dialogic principle is one of the most important elements of humanistic psychology, the humanitarian paradigm in psychology. He identifies the following main attributes of interpersonal dialogue:
– freedom of interlocutors;
– equality (mutual recognition of each other’s freedom);
– personal contact based on empathy and mutual understanding.
“According to the humanistic tradition, the most important attribute of a person, one of the “existentials of human existence” (Frankl) is freedom. Accordingly, the initial definition at the interpersonal level: dialogue is free communication of free people, a communicative form of the existence of freedom. Dialogue “at the highest level” takes place where and insofar as people enter into communication as free sovereign individuals” (S. Bratchenko).
Freedom from external, non-personal goals, pragmatic interests, tasks of persuasion, which are guided by leadership, education, rhetoric and other methods of influence . Interpersonal dialogue does not have a specific goal at all, it is centered on the process, there is no “Dale Carnegie complex”, it is not the goal that matters, but the consequences .
Equality. For the operationalization of this concept in the context of communication problems, the construct of communicative rights of the individual (CPL) is proposed. Among the main ones:
– on your value system;
– self-determination (to be a responsible subject, co-author of communication);
– on dignity and respect;
– on individuality and originality, on difference from the interlocutor;
– for independence and sovereignty;
– on a free, unregulated thought;
– to thaw their rights.
More private :
– the right to a position, a point of view;
– to freely express their position (the right to vote);
– to uphold and defend one’s position;
– on the trust of the interlocutor (presumption of sincerity);
– to understand the interlocutor, to clarify for himself his position, point of view;
– to a question to the interlocutor;
– to doubt any judgments;
– to disagree with the position of the interlocutor;
– expressing doubt or disagreement;
– to change, develop one’s position, point of view;
– on sincere delusion and mistake;
– on feelings and experiences and their open expression;
– to the secret, to the non-public sphere;
– build communication on the principles of equality, regardless of the status of the interlocutor;
– to end the conversation.
Levels of communication analysis
A specific psychological study of communication requires the development of ideas about its structure and dynamics. Exploring the structure of communication, we can talk about three levels of analysis (Lomov):
I. Macrolevel – the analysis of the individual’s communication is considered as the most important aspect of his lifestyle. This level involves the study of the development of communication in time intervals comparable to the duration of a person’s life.
Communication at this level can be viewed as a complex, evolving network of relationships. If we consider any such line, then the first thing that will be found is the discontinuity of communication, a change in its intensity.
Public institutions, class, family, national relations determine who, with whom, on what occasion enters into communication. Here psychology merges with sociology. This level is the main one in studies of personality, motivational sphere and interpersonal relations. The range of psychological problems of this level:
– problems of development of forms of communication;
– their dependence on the norms, traditions and rules of conduct existing in a given society (group);
– relationship between communication and individual consciousness;
– age features of the psyche;
– development of character, abilities, needs and motives, the formation of life plans, etc.
II. The mesa level refers to the study of individual contacts that people enter into. We are talking about those moments of their lives when they solve a particular problem together. In this complex process, one can single out those moments that really act as communication, as interaction. Each such moment can be called a period of communication . The point here is not the duration, but the content, the topic.
At this level, it is important to reveal the dynamics of communication, the development of its topic, to identify the means used, i.e. consider communication as a process during which the exchange of ideas, ideas, experiences, etc. is carried out.
III. The micro level is the study of individual conjugated acts of communication, which act as its original elementary units. The elementary unit of communication is precisely the conjugated act. It includes not only the action of one of the individuals, but also the associated co-action (or opposition) of the partner. The analysis of speech communication allows us to distinguish 3 main simple types of cycles:
message – relation to it
motivation to action
These cycles can form complex forms of interaction, alternating in time, including each other, “intersecting”.
Structure of communication
In any act of communication, there are three sides, or three interrelated aspects. In the real process of communication, they are not separated from each other, but each of them has its own content and means of implementation:
|Communicative||Information exchange||Speech Extra- and paralinguistic means Facial expression Gesture Organization of space|
|Interactive||Exchange of Influences||Contagion Persuasion Suggestion Imitation|
|perceptual||Exchange of self-images||Identification Empathy Reflection Causal attribution|
Types of communication
The complexity and diversity of the process of communication does not make it possible to classify the types of communication on one basis. Depending on what is accepted as the basis for classification, the following types of communication can be represented.
1. The subject-subject scheme serves as the basis for classification ( M.S. Kagan ). Then stand out:
A. Communication with a real partner (with a genuine subject), which includes:
1) interpersonal communication;
2) representative communication (subjects act primarily as representatives of certain groups);
3) intergroup communication;
4) communication of cultures.
B. Communication with an illusory partner (with a subjective object):
a) with animals
b) with things;
c) natural phenomena.
B. Communication with an imaginary partner (with a quasi-subject):
a) communication with yourself, with your second “I”;
b) with mythological and artistic images and their creators;
c) with the image of an absent real person.