Application No. 3
Questions to Activate Students
Issues for discussion
1. The concept of matter. The main stages in the development of the concept of matter. The structure of matter.
2. Basic properties of matter. Movement as a change in things, their properties and relations.
3. Space and time as forms of existence of things and phenomena. Space-time infinity of the material world.
4. Dialectics as a doctrine of development and universal connection, its alternatives. The structure of dialectics.
5. The principle of universal communication. Characteristics of connections, System approach in modern science and practice.
6. The principle of development. The ratio of change, movement and development. The principle of development and the idea of global evolutionism in modern natural science. Synergetics and a new world outlook.
7. Laws and categories of dialectics: dialectics as a structure of being, a method of cognition and the logic of thinking.
Formation of the concept of matter.
· Modern scientific ideas about the structure of matter.
· Levels of organization of matter.
· Movement as an attributive property of matter.
· Interaction of space, time and matter.
· Philosophical meaning of the theory of relativity.
The material unity of the world.
· The development of dialectics in the works of Heraclitus of Ephesus, N. of Cusa, G. Hegel, K. Marx, F. Engels, in the works of Russian and Soviet philosophers.
· Ancient Greek sophistry as a subjectivist dialectic of concepts.
· Metaphysical materialism of the 17th-19th centuries and its overcoming in the course of great discoveries in natural science.
· The essence and content of a systematic approach.
· The concept of “attitude” and its categorical meaning.
· The idea of global evolutionism in modern science.
· Synergetics as an interdisciplinary doctrine and a new understanding of the world.
Application No. 4
Tasks for checking the level of competencies:
1 . “The source of all reality is the “I”, since it is the immediate and unconditional posited. Only through the medium of the “I” and together with it is the concept of reality given. But I am because it posits itself because it is. self-position and being are one and the same, but the concept of self-position and activity in general are in turn one and the same.
“Everything that exists in the Universe, as an essence, as a phenomenon, a person first has in his soul.”
a) What is, according to Fichte and Leonardo da Vinci, the substantive basis for the existence of being?
b) How are the concepts of “being” and “reality” related?
c) What is the philosophical attitude of Fichte and Leonardo da Vinci?
2. What kind of idealism can be attributed to the authors of the following judgments?
a) “The world does not exist separately from us. Its reality depends on our or universal consciousness” (R. Tagore).
b) “The great architect of the universe is increasingly beginning to seem like a pure mathematician” (D. Jeans).
c) “Language is not only an expression of thoughts. It determines the nature of reality” (S. Hayakawa).
d) “I am standing in the Universe with only the intellectual tools that I possess. In a certain sense, I am only playing an exciting game with myself” (P. Bridgman).
3. Choose the correct philosophical definition. Justify your choice:
a) materialism is the recognition that the whole world, all bodies and objects consist of the same particles (atoms, electrons, protons, etc.);
b) materialism is a philosophical trend that affirms the primacy of nature, being and the secondary nature of consciousness;
c) materialism is the principle of life, which consists in recognizing the primacy of material goods for human life;
d) materialism is a practical, sound view of things, the rejection of illusory, far from life reasoning.
4. “Absolute, true, mathematical time in itself and in its essence, without any relation to anything external, flows evenly and is called duration … Absolute space in its very essence, regardless of anything external, always remains the same and immovable.
a) From the standpoint of what type of worldview is such a view of the forms of existence of matter possible?
b) Are absolute space and time possible outside of matter and motion?
5. “Matter and consciousness are, in fact, conventional concepts …” – writes B. Russell.
Engels states: “Such concepts as ‘matter’, ‘motion’ … are nothing more than abbreviations in which we cover, according to their general properties, many different sensually perceived things …”.
a) What is the fundamental difference in the judgments of these two philosophers about fundamental philosophical concepts?
b) Do they have different worldviews?
6. “This cosmos, the same for all, was not created by any of the gods, none of the people, but it has always been, is and will be an ever-living fire, steadily flaring up, measuredly fading.”
(a) What form of materialism is reflected in this conclusion of Heraclitus?
b) Who do you think is right: Heraclitus, who claims that the cosmos “was, is and will be”; or Parmenides, who declared that what “is” did not “was” and would not “be”?
c) What is the ideological status of the concept of “cosmos” in Heraclitus? What does the definition of “live” add to this status?
7. “Democritus: the beginning of the Universe is atoms and emptiness … And atoms are countless in variety of sizes and in multitude; they rush in the universe, circling in a whirlwind, and thus everything complex is born:” fire, water, air, earth … “.
“Everything happens out of necessity, since the cause of everything is a whirlwind, which he calls necessity.”
“… Epicurus figured out how to avoid the need (from Democritus, therefore, it escaped): he claims that an atom rushing down a straight line due to its weight and gravity deviates slightly from a straight line. Only if the deviation of atoms is allowed, according to him words, to save free will.”
(a) Compared to Democritus’ understanding of the atom, what new property of the atom does Epicurus discover?
b) Which of the modern philosophers continued the line of ancient atomism and created a complete mechanistic picture of the world?
c) What does the idea of free will bring to the interpretation of being?
Tasks for checking the level of competencies:
1. Explain the thought of Heraclitus: “Homer was wrong in praying that the struggle would disappear from the face of the earth; for if his prayer were fulfilled, all things would perish.”
2. A well-known ancient Greek aphorism calls for:
“Don’t be too rude, don’t be too stubborn, don’t be too argumentative, don’t be too angry. Stubbornness offends, gentleness causes contempt, unnecessary evidence offends, blind faith makes ridiculous, unbelief leads to vice.
a) Illustrate the aphorism with several examples from your life.
b) What law of dialectics, to which the aphorism calls for observance, are we talking about here?
c) Formulate this law and name its main categories.
3. Consider the following statement:
“In dialectics, negation does not mean simply saying no, or declaring a thing non-existent, or destroying it in any way … I must not only negate something, but also remove this negation again. Therefore, the first negation must be done in such a way that the second remains possible … But how to achieve this? If I have ground a grain of barley or crushed an insect, then although I have performed the first act of denial, I have made the second impossible. For each type of object, as well as for each type of representation, there is, consequently, its own special kind of negation, such a negation that, in this case, a development is obtained. (F. Engels).
a) What is the “first negation”? What should it be in order to maintain development?
b) What is “withdrawal”, what are its main characteristics?
c) Formulate in conclusion the law of negation of negation. Give your examples.
d) Answer the question, which particular moment of development does this law characterize?
4. What approach is used to define matter in this statement?
“… a thing can be taken into account as matter, or body, as living, sentient, intelligent, hot, cold, moving, at rest; matter, or body, is meant by all these names, since all such names are names of matter “(P. Holbach).
a) Is a dialectical or metaphysical approach used to define matter?
b) What is matter identified with?
c) In what does Holbach see the problem of the knowledge of matter?
5. Is the following reasoning by J. Berkeley dialectical?
“I must confess that I do not find that motion can be other than relative; so that in order to overcome motion, at least two bodies must be imagined, the distance between which or the relative position of which changes.”
6. Read the statement of G.V. Plekhanov:
“Every movement is a dialectical process, a living contradiction, and since there is not a single natural phenomenon in the explanation of which we would not have to appeal to movement in the last analysis, we must agree with Hegel, who said that dialectics is the soul of all scientific knowledge” 53 .
What are the advantages of dialectics as a method of cognition?
7. “Dialectic has become the most successful form of sophistry. There is no more eternal Truth and eternal Reason. Reality is history; history is movement. Movement is a dialectical transition. He who has fallen under the influence of dialectics, proceeding from the nature of his knowledge, will not hesitate to change any of his views to a view that is completely opposite. Any person who wants to stick to something definite, or does not want to constantly change his views and tries to prove his case by resorting to Marxism or turning to facts for support, will be declared a bourgeois reactionary, and he will be asked to think dialectically henceforth. Because of this, such confusion has reigned in the minds of the poor orthodox believers that they are ready to accept any position on faith, perform any action and obey any command, because, as they were inspired, this is the obedience to the dialectic of history, in which the wise teacher far more tempted than any true believer. This new science constantly confuses the faithful and leads them into complete confusion, that from now on they only have to obey orders “(K. Jaspers).
a) Does Jaspers correctly expound the dialectic?
b) If dozens of special sciences study various changes – the processes of formation and destruction of chemical compounds, living organisms, stars, states, then how does dialectics differ from these sciences?
8. The expression is known that the hand, separated from the body, is only in name a hand. In the light of what categories of dialectics does this expression become clear?
9. The ancient Greek philosopher Eubulite in the sophism “Sorite” (“Heap”) raised a question, the answer to which was eventually one of the basic laws of dialectics:
“Does one grain make a heap?” – “No. And one more added to the first one?” — “Not either.” The question posed is repeated until it was necessary to admit that as a result of the addition of the next grain, what was denied at the beginning, that is, a pile of grain, turned out.
What kind of dialectical regularity are we talking about?
10. Somehow, in the courtyard of the University of Paris, the “angelic doctor” Thomas Aquinas had an argument about whether the mole has eyes. Each stood his ground devoutly and unwaveringly. But then the gardener, who accidentally overheard this scholarly dispute, take it and offer your services:
“If you want,” he said, I will bring you a live mole at once. You look at him, and your dispute will be resolved on that.
– In no case! Never! After all, we are arguing in principle: does a principled mole have principled eyes in principle?
Which way of thinking is ridiculed in this historical anecdote
Application No. 5
Test No. 1 Matter
1. According to ________, matter has the attributes of both extension and thinking.