Psychodiagnostics of early childhood.
1. The importance of psychodiagnostics from an early age.
2. Diagnosis of early age was carried out by A. Anastasi, Binet-Simon, Stanford Binet, V. SternE, E. Clanared, S. Buhler, A. Gezel.
In domestic psychology, the works of N. Kornilov, A.P. Nechaeva, A.A. Lyublinskaya, A.I. Makarova, N.L. Figurina and M.P. Denisov. In recent years, indicators of the neuropsychic development of children in the 2nd and 3rd years of life were developed by R.V. Tonkova-Yampolskaya, G.V. Panityukhina, K.L. Pechora.
In diagnosing the development of early age, Binet-Simon put:
* emotional communication;
* speech development.
Based on a comparison of “mental” and chronological (passport, biological) ages, quantitative and qualitative levels of mental development were calculated.
V. Stern, E. Clanared, S. Buhler and others created psychometric methods for studying intelligence.
A. Gezel (1225) developed original tables for the study of children in four areas of behavior (for children from 4 weeks to 6 years old):
* adaptive behavior;
* personal and social behavior.
In recent years, N. Bailey’s scales have been widely used abroad, including:
mental scale – sensory development of memory, ability to learn, development of speech;
motor scale – the development of muscle coordination and manipulation.
child’s behavior is an emotional, social manifestation of children’s perseverance.
N. Bailey’s scales show high reliability of 0.81-0.93.
F.Kulman’s tests in infancy include motor reactions, reactions to sound, eyeball coordination, object tracking, blinking, holding the head and sitting, turning the head to sound, abducting the thumb, holding the object in the hand.
Insert from the diagram p.12-14
The indicators are given for 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months.
The disadvantage of the scale is that the indicators of the Kuhlmann scale lag behind the norms of the mental development of children of the corresponding age groups at the present time.
Diagnosis of motor reactions at an early age (3 years)
1. Technique “Finger enumeration”;
2. Methodology “Samples of Ozersky”;
3. Asymmetrical tapping;
4. Graphic samples.
All methods are intended for children of 3 years of age, they diagnose gross and fine motor skills, social behavior, and speech.
Insert p. 20-22.
Goodenough’s “Draw a Man” test is designed to measure the intellectual level of children.
The assessment of the level of intellectual development is carried out on the basis of the following concepts:
* what parts of the body are drawn;
* what details of clothing the child depicted in the drawing;
* how proportions, dimensions, perspective are taken into account.
51 elements of the drawing are evaluated. The reliability of the test is quite high, it can be used in individual and group examinations.
Diagnosis of readiness of children for school.
Diagnosis of functional readiness for school according to the Kern-Jirasen method.
Diagnosis of the level of development of those entering primary school (G. Vitulan)
Includes the following tasks:
Task number 1 – “Building a tower”; picture story;
Task number 2 – Learning a poem:
I really like to study
I’m not afraid to answer
I can handle the task
Because I’m not lazy.
Task number 3 – Knowledge of the names of objects. For the task, you need 9 pictures, which must be laid out at a distance of 2 cm from each other: an apple, a carrot, a rose, a pear, a tulip, a cabbage, a sunflower, a cherry, a carnation.
Task number 4 – The same pictures, but the child is asked to count them.
Task number 5 – Count more than nine, how much the child knows.
Task number 6 – Put vegetables, fruits, flowers in the basket for classification.
Task number 7 – Set – count the fruits and vegetables located at a distance from each other, say how many of each.
Task number 8 – Comparison.
* In the cart the girl has a big bear and a small one (does the child notice the locomotive)
* Parsley without a ball and with a ball;
* The goose looks at the boy or vice versa;
* There is a cat on the tree or without a cat
Task number 9 – Analogies:
* It’s bright during the day, but what about at night?
* A bird can fly, but what can a dog do?
* A car can drive, but what can an airplane do?
Task number 10 – Differentiation of color and shape. Choose a piece of liner by color and shape.
Task number 11 – The ability to dismemberment carried out by copying
Task number 12 – Memory. Repetition of a poem.
Task number 13 – 15 – Speech development Description of the pictures: “In the sandbox”, “Winter Hill”.