The main tasks that the student faces when completing the assignment:
1. Acquaintance with the methodology for developing job descriptions.
2. Acquisition of knowledge about the form of the job description and the content of its sections.
3. Knowledge of the regulatory documents that underlie the development of job descriptions.
Full-time students agree on the name of the position with their teacher. Students of the correspondence department develop a job description for the position in which they work. The job description is drawn up in accordance with GOST for the design of management documentation. In Section 2 (Job Responsibilities), those job responsibilities that do not coincide with the typical job responsibilities from the Qualification Directory for the positions of managers, specialists and employees are highlighted in bold.
Methodology for developing job descriptions
a common part
The appointment and place of the employee in the management apparatus is determined. The following provisions are established in the general part:
The main management function that the employee implements in accordance with the matrix of distribution of functions between structural divisions. The subordination of employees in accordance with the scheme of the organizational structure , indicating a specific structural unit and a higher manager. The list of officials (for managers) directly subordinated according to the staffing of the enterprise.
The procedure for appointing, transferring and dismissing an employee for a given position is determined in accordance with the Qualification Guide for the Positions of Managers, Specialists and Employees and the Internal Labor Regulations .
The qualification characteristics of a candidate for a position, establishing the length of service in the specialty and the level of education, are determined according to the Qualification Directory for the positions of managers, specialists and employees, qualification characteristics.
Professional requirements for a candidate for a position (“what should be able to”) are established from the Qualification Directory for the positions of managers, specialists and employees .
The list of basic regulations, regulations and instructions that an employee should follow in the performance of his duties (“what should he know”) are determined on the basis of a qualification directory for the positions of managers, specialists and employees and internal regulatory documents of the enterprise.
The main goal of the employee’s activity, which determines the main direction of his work in the performance of functional duties. For example, the main goal of the activity of the head of the enterprise is to ensure the implementation of the plan for economic and social development, to maximize profits and produce high quality products with the least expenditure of resources.
The list of job responsibilities is compiled on the basis of the Regulations on the unit , qualification characteristics , the analysis of the work (workplace or position) and the completed job description (workplace, position). The list of typical job responsibilities from the Qualification Directory of positions of managers, specialists and employees is taken as a basis.
Rights characterize the possibility of using various resources (labor, information, financial, material, technical, energy) to solve management problems. The rights are exercised on the principle of unity of command by the head of the enterprise, who can delegate them to his deputies and specialists.
The rights establish a list of the employee’s powers that ensure the implementation of the functional duties assigned to him. The initial data for their development are: the Civil Code of the Russian Federation ; Labor Code of the Russian Federation ; standard rules of internal labor regulations ; Philosophy of the enterprise ; Regulations on the structural unit and typical (exemplary) job descriptions
This section defines the personal responsibility of the employee for untimely and poor-quality performance of functional duties, taking into account the current labor legislation. Initial data for development: Civil Code , Labor Code of the Russian Federation , Charter of the enterprise , Philosophy of the enterprise , Regulation on remuneration , model Internal Labor Regulations , model (exemplary) job descriptions, Regulations on structural divisions .
The quality of performance of functional duties is determined by the results of the activities of the structural unit as a whole, taking into account the specific contribution of the employee to the overall work. A specific contribution is established through the fulfillment of economic indicators assigned to the structural unit and the position of the employee.
Assessment of the timeliness and quality of the performance of functional duties is carried out by the head of the employee.
Sanctions that can be applied to an employee must comply with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, the Philosophy of the enterprise and the model Internal Labor Regulations; Regulations on wages, Regulations on bonuses, etc.
This section indicates the forms of moral and material incentives for the timely and high-quality performance of functional duties and the absence of violations of labor discipline:
Each of you is in the near future a young specialist who graduated from a university. You have read in the newspaper (Internet) an advertisement for recruitment. To meet with the employer, you should develop your resume. The summary is developed by each individually.
A resume is information about yourself that a job seeker provides to an employer. A successful resume can be an occasion for an interview, a personal meeting with the employer. An example summary form is shown below in Fig. one.
Fig 1. Sample resume form.
|Personal information – Age – Marital status Purpose Describe the position you are applying for, your wishes for future work disciplines – Also indicate any additional education Work experience (in reverse 19 … – 19 … chronological order) – Name of the organization – Position, main responsibilities, indicate the foreign languages u200bu200bthat you speak and their level of knowledge Computer skills Specify the software Knowledge you own Additional information – Driving license – Social activities Interests ………………………………..|
At the top of the page on which your resume is submitted, there is a photo (on the right) and information about your coordinates: address, phone numbers, E-mail, etc. (on the left, in small print). Below – in large print – last name, first name, patronymic.
The proposed resume form is not the only correct one. Other forms may also be used. It is important to comply with certain criteria:
· Stylish design
Analysis of the labor market (individual task: job title) based on materials from periodicals, electronic media, and a sample of organizations
The task involves a creative approach, not regulated by instructions, to assess the level of mastery of the subject.
You are performing a labor market analysis for the position for which you developed the job description and for the region in which you now live. For work, you use information from the periodical press (“Work for You”, “Work Today”), as well as from the Internet. Information from the Internet through the Prt Sc function (a key on the computer) is inserted as a picture into independent work. The review period is 2-3 months. Clippings from newspapers and printouts of information about the position from the Internet, please attach the date, exact address or number and page of the newspaper.
The information that you collect should reflect the scope of the organization, the requirements and responsibilities of the organization for the position and the candidate for the vacancy, the level of payment, etc. The data obtained must be statistically processed and analyzed (the amount of data must be statistically significant – 20-30 vacancies) .
Analysis of the situation
Be as concise as possible. The answer should be clear, concise, well structured. The situations for analysis are given immediately after the example of situation analysis. For full-time students, the number of the option is called by the teacher, students of the correspondence department choose the option that matches the last digit in the record number.
Your teacher, checking your analysis, will evaluate it according to the following criteria:
· When analyzing the positive and negative consequences of the proposed alternative solutions, one should demonstrate an understanding of the theory and the ability to apply it to a specific situation.
· The number of alternatives must be more than three.
· The formulation of the problem should be consistent with the proposed alternative solutions.
· When giving advice on which of the alternative solutions to take, provide justification.
Case study example
Case study “Percentage of remuneration”
Vladimir, a recent graduate of a technical university, a computer technician who previously worked at a scientific research institute, was hired by a competition for a manufacturing enterprise. Vladimir was the only and beloved son in the family, an excellent student, an intelligent and educated young man, not married. He enthusiastically took up the task assigned to him to create a database on the sale of products. A year later, the work was completed, and he received a decent bonus, for which he bought himself a personal computer. He showed himself well at the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, where the company’s products were exhibited, he showed talent not only as a programmer, but also as a businessman. Vladimir advertised the company’s products with such enthusiasm and “courage” that there was no end to the buyers. He was entrusted with holding exhibitions, and about a year later the director of the enterprise decided to appoint Vladimir the head of the commercial department. The department was engaged in the supply and marketing of products. In the contract with Vladimir, it was stipulated that, along with a guaranteed salary, he would receive a remuneration in the amount of 5% of the net income received from the sale of the company’s products. The remuneration of the director, as Vladimir soon learned, was 10% of the income. And in this area, things went very well for Vladimir. In just a year of his work, the volume of sales of products increased by 25%, although there was overstocking before him. He was well treated in the team, especially women. Volodya did not drink, did not smoke, behaved very intelligently with women, for which they called him “good boy”. Now he possessed a lot of commercial information: he had 5 subordinates, knew sales volumes, production costs, gross and net income, gave orders for the distribution of remuneration between employees. His income has become much more than when he worked as a simple programmer. A new quality appeared – the love of money. He spent money mainly on himself: fashionable clothes, vacations abroad, buying foreign currency.
Once Vladimir came to the director with a number of valuable proposals for the development of commercial activities and at the end of the conversation said that the main income of the enterprise goes to his department, and his remuneration is only 5%. Considering the value of Vladimir’s ideas, the director suggested increasing his stake to 7%. “Why not up to 10%,” Vladimir was surprised, “after all, I make the main contribution to commerce?” The director explained that 40% of net income goes to remuneration, but production sites, commercial and production departments, a transport department, and accounting work for sales. Vladimir left dissatisfied… The conversation soon became known at the enterprise, and the opinion of the team was divided. The employees of the commercial department were on the side of Vladimir, who harbored a grudge against the director. However, he continued to perform well, implemented a computer-based sales control system, and sales increased by another 15% in the reporting year. Soon the economic situation in Russia changed: non-payments grew, warehouses were overstocked with products, interruptions in the supply of components increased, and barter transactions became widespread. In the structure of income, paid services to the population increased and income from the sale of products decreased. After one of the operatives with the director, Vladimir’s department was criticized for reducing sales volumes. He asked the director for a personal meeting and said that he was ready to improve sales work, he had new ideas if his remuneration was 10% of net income, like a director. The director refused, then Vladimir gave him a pre-written letter of resignation of his own free will.
…. The next three years he worked in an insurance company as an agent and in a pension fund as the head of the securities bureau.
Did Vladimir and the director do the right thing?
What recommendations would you give to resolve the conflict?
What could be done to increase the sale of barter products?
Written analysis of the specific situation “Percentage of remuneration”
What: the conflict between the director and the head of the commercial department in remuneration for results
Who: director and head of the commercial department
The amount of remuneration for the commercial service for the final result leads to conflict. Decreased sales of finished products for the enterprise.
Director – supports initiatives, promotes young people, receives 10% of the income from the sale.
Vladimir is an excellent student, young, intelligent, literate, does not drink or smoke, knows a computer, is sociable, a businessman, he spent money on himself, he knows his own worth.
An industrial enterprise, the legal form is not defined, the position on the market is not monopoly, not dominant.
The past – Vladimir came to the enterprise to work as a programmer, then as a businessman, he worked at the exhibition with “courage” – at ease, cheekily, with feigned courage. Growth in sales volume for the enterprise by 25% per year, introduction of a marketing strategy for products.
H present – growth in sales of products by 15%, barter transactions, overstocking of warehouses, growth in services to the population. Vladimir is dissatisfied with wages. Reward 5% – 7% want 10%.
The future is a decrease in sales volumes due to the departure of Vladimir, an overstocking of the warehouse, an increase in non-payments. Vladimir – “a rushing career” – an agent, head of a bureau, created for commerce.
6. Conceptual questions:
|What’s the strategy?||Maintain market position and expand sales|
|Control system?||Linear-functional structure|
|Motivation?||Salary + % of sales revenue|
|Financial condition?||Profitable, there is a net income|
|Personnel Management?||Democratic style, focus on youth|
|Product quality?||not said|
|Pay features?||% of sales revenue. Distribution of premiums by KTU|
|The essence of conflict?||Compensation for work is disputed by the employee|
7. Alternative solutions:
|1. Dismiss Vladimir at his own request.||Vladimir “buries himself” and this is a bad example for the department’s employees. A more accommodating head of the commercial department should be found.||The new head of the commercial department will be on the course for 6-12 months. Sales volumes will fall.|
|2. Leave Vladimir to work as the head of the commercial department for 10% of income.||He has ideas for increasing sales volumes and this will lead to an increase in the net income of the enterprise.||Will cause discontent of other employees of the enterprise, whose bonuses will decrease.|
|3. Transfer Vladimir to the position of deputy. director of commerce and offer him 7% of the income.||Satisfies his ambition, will give an increase in guaranteed pay and the possibility of implementing his ideas in the enterprise.||Vladimir’s age and experience are not enough to work as a deputy. director. He prefers active work.|
|4. Create a subsidiary commercial company (LLC, CJSC) at the enterprise with 100% of the authorized capital of the plant and appoint Vladimir as its director.||It will satisfy Vladimir’s ambition and give him the opportunity to work independently under the control of the director of the enterprise, who will be the chairman of the board.||Vladimir’s age and experience are insufficient. Over time, he can conduct “left deals” in his personal interests.|
I propose to accept option 4, as it will allow Vladimir’s commercial talent to be used for the benefit of the organization, which will bring it income, diversify sources of income, which will contribute to greater overall stability of the company. On the other hand, thanks to this, the employee will continue to work for the benefit of the company (successful businessmen are rare), if Vladimir encounters difficulties, he will be able to help him in time, Vladimir will be able to see not only his strengths, but also his limitations.
SITUATION OPTIONS FOR ANALYSIS
Unpredictable absenteeism [i]
Petr Smirnov works for Verona. He is 28 years old, single and has been working here for 7 years. Verona is a major international printing company with operations in ten CIS countries. In Russia, it produces some of its products at one of the factories located in a small provincial town in the Urals. The plant consists of two parts: the northern part, where the production and packaging processes are carried out, and the southern part, where the final product processing line and warehouses are located. Both parts of the plant are separated by a road, so the smooth operation of the transport service for the transportation of products from one part to another is a very important factor for the functioning of the entire production system. Peter’s responsibilities include transporting products from one part of the plant to another.
Peter lives with his parents. He loves entertainment very much and spends a lot of money on them; also likes to play sports – hockey in winter and football in summer, and even manages to earn extra money, acting as a referee at women’s and men’s volleyball matches. At work, he has been known for many years for his unpredictable absenteeism, they often turn into just sprees. He may not come to work for 10-12 days, he is often late for work, explaining this by various reasons. In some cases, this interrupts the working operations in the warehouse of the plant. His new head of the section, Galina Nikolaevna, believes that Peter’s active life should not interfere with his work at the plant. One day, when Peter took a few walks after playing hockey, he tried to explain it by saying that every time the game caused old back pains. From his personal file, Galina Nikolaevna really discovered that two years ago, Peter went to the factory doctor about back pain. It happened just after playing sports. However, the doctor’s notes made after the examination testified that Peter was not forbidden to work after what had happened. Galina Nikolaevna was Peter’s fourth section chief for the last two and a half years of his work at the plant. All the previous chiefs of the section made notes about his violations in Peter’s personal file, and held appropriate conversations with him. Each time, Peter agreed that he should improve, at the same time citing ill health and illness as the reason for his behavior. It was noticed that after each such educational conversation, his behavior at work improved significantly.
In principle, Peter was a good worker. He had nothing to complain about, but one could not expect any extra effort from him either. Looking through his personal file, Galina Nikolaevna recalled his three previous bosses. Two of them differed in that they gave subordinates complete freedom to work with minimal checks on their part. And one was a really “tough” boss, keeping everything and everyone under constant control, instructing and helping all his employees, scolding them when they did something wrong. However, most people at the plant liked him. Galina Nikolaevna discovered an interesting fact from her personal file. Peter’s absenteeism was more frequent with this “hard” boss and less with those two “liberals” who let people decide for themselves where, how and when to work.
At eight in the morning on Monday, October 6, Pyotr Smirnov did not appear at work, and the transport service was supposed to start working in a reduced staff. Analyzing the entries in Peter’s personal file, Galina Nikolaevna determined that he had fallen into a new period of spree. In addition, recently, in September, he had already skipped three days. She wondered what she should do.
NEW PLACE – NEW BEHAVIOR [ii]
The master of a large machine-building plant Pchelkin received an unexpected gift in connection with the 25th anniversary of his labor activity. The director of the plant said that he was waiting for today to appoint him on the day of the anniversary as the head of production for the recently vacated position. Pchelkin was surprised by this proposal, since he was not in the reserve and did not aspire to become a big boss himself.
As a foreman, Pchelkin was successful at work. His qualifications were recognized by all. He had good camaraderie with his employees. Although in a number of cases he did not really think about the selection of folklore expressions, the employees did not give offense to him, did not leave him in difficult times and followed him if he asked. In principle, he never felt like a tough boss for his employees. Rather, he was “first among equals.” Pchelkin and his staff were an example of a team in which a masculine friendly atmosphere reigned.
When Pchelkin took up a new position, it turned out that he could speak at the proper professional level with all the masters. With great perseverance, he tried to acquire the missing technical knowledge, and not the knowledge of managing people. He tried to compensate for his inner uncertainty with a special rigidity in management. However, the craftsmen subordinate to Pchelkin did not carry out his tasks, but, on the contrary, showed complete independence in their actions.
Before, when they were colleagues of the same hierarchical level, they understood each other well. And the less they wanted now to recognize the former master Pchelkin in his new position as production manager.
Pchelkin, in desperation, turned to the director of the plant, his boss, for help. The director was unable or unwilling to help him, but only said, “You just have to go through these problems. After a while, everything will be settled, it will return to normal. ”
However, the situation did not improve, but worsened. The foremen, especially the new foreman who had taken Pchelkin’s previous position, turned their backs on him when they spoke. They told him: “We are doing our job! Do your own and do not constantly interfere in our work! Pchelkin did not know what to do. Constant stress at work began to affect the relationship with his wife. A stomach ulcer made itself felt … After three months of painful relations with colleagues, Pchelkin decided to quit. He found himself a new position as a foreman at another machine-building plant, where his experience was in great demand.
This story ended badly not only for Pchelkin, but for the enterprise as a whole. The metamorphosis of the master into the head of production failed. In addition, the new master who took the position of Pchelkin turned out to be a weak specialist. Now there are two vacancies at the plant: a production manager and a foreman.
CARING BUT NOT LOVING [iii]
For several years, Zverev has been managing the plant of a well-known and traditional joint-stock company for the production of machines. He has about 1,000 subordinates. Thanks to the great work and personal contribution to the affairs of the company, the forty-year-old manager of the plant, Zverev, gained a good reputation among the management, his opinion had great weight there.
The management of the joint-stock company considered him an excellent specialist. He was the first to go to work in the morning and the last to leave in the evening. He implemented the decisions made, despite the objections and resistance from his employees.
True, many people at the plant accept his methods of work with displeasure, and a number of employees would not like him to be a manager at all.
Information about dissatisfaction at the plant began to reach the company’s management. The question arose: “Why can’t Zverev, an energetic and self-confident person, at the same time obligatory and ready to compromise in relation to senior management, cope with his employees?”
Addressing Zverev with a similar question, the company’s vice president of human resources received the following answer from him: “It is not good for people to sit back and chat. My goal is to establish complete order in the factory. Employees receive my practical instructions and orders, which should not be discussed, but executed. However, over and over again I am convinced that the masters do not perform them properly. I don’t let it pass unnoticed and tell them politely but definitely. After all, I worked as a foreman and I know this work “both along and across.” I take care of everything myself. I know everything that happens in my plant and keep everything under control.
Are my demands for discipline and order too high? I think only about the welfare of our employees. I do not hold on to the chair of the manager and have enough courage to make myself unpopular for the long-term interests of our joint-stock company. The factory workers speak positively about the manager’s willingness to share his knowledge. However, they complain that Zverev literally floods the desktops with orders and orders. Therefore, the heads of workshops and foremen cannot do a specific job. They are forced to constantly rebuild. Meetings are not held with them, they are not allowed to speak out, even if we are talking about rationalization proposals in production.
The head of the workshop with experience says: “Zverev does not listen to us at all. And only thanks to our experience, in a number of cases, we managed to avoid serious troubles and accidents. We don’t like our manager’s leadership style. Many people would have left the factory if he didn’t take personal care of his employees. He is interested in family affairs, and in case of serious illnesses, he visits the sick, gets medicines, and talks with doctors. In addition, he knows how to provide funding for mass celebrations at the plant.”
We do not know what measures the management of the joint-stock company took in this situation. Why does Zverev run into a misunderstanding of his employees? What should be changed in order to achieve a more favorable working atmosphere at the plant in the future?
Five translators and a leader worked in the translation group of the information department at the design bureau. The group significantly exceeded the production rate. The leader determined the total amount of work, and the translators themselves distributed it among themselves, helping each other. At the end of each week, the leader held a group meeting, evaluated the work and reported on the upcoming one. The translators themselves offered additional materials for discussion. But there was one translator in the group who did not have sufficient experience and qualifications, and therefore everyone helped her when the need arose. This annoyed her a little, but she was grateful for the help. And then one day at a traditional meeting, she proposed for translation a large series of articles containing material that was urgently needed by the design bureau. The leader suggested that she immediately start translating these articles, putting aside what she was translating. She, not sparing her time and energy, sat all the days until the evening, working even on weekends. The very first translations helped the designers to make significant progress in their developments. Her translations proved to be of high quality, and the volume of work far exceeded that of the group. The management of the design bureau and the team leader were very pleased with her work and highly appreciated the initiative. She began to work independently.
Two months later, the attitude towards the translator on the part of the employees changed dramatically. The leader of the group could not understand what had happened. He worked in a separate office, but when he went into the translators’ room, he saw that she was sitting with tearful eyes, and a painful silence hung in the room, questions did not give anything. She referred to personal circumstances while the others shrugged their shoulders. The true reason was hidden from the leader, and he already felt it. Then he decided to talk to this employee. It turned out that the translators at first did not approve of her initiatives, then in her presence they began to exchange sharp remarks about her appearance – hairstyles, cosmetics, clothes. Then she slipped incorrect translations of idiomatic expressions several times. And then they began to openly accuse her of careerism.
But she still worked efficiently and a lot, and the leader reassured her that everything would change for the better, but the situation developed for the worse. In addition, the total volume of transfers in the group began to decrease. The group began to behave defiantly: at traditional weekly meetings, everyone sat silently and waited for instructions from the leader. He began to make claims against the translators, demanded to stop the obstruction of initiatives, but stumbled upon a deaf, unfriendly silence. Then he transplanted the enterprising translator into another room. She was left alone, but the volume of transfers began to decline and then stabilized at a much lower level than a few months ago. The leader criticized the work of the translators and set as an example the initiative of the worker whom they had rejected. The translators responded with a resolute and unanimous rebuff, appealing to the existing standards of translation: “there are standards, and we work according to them.” And they delayed the delivery of excess urgent articles. The group became out of control.
At that time, the leader achieved a revision of bonuses for exceeding the norms and for the quality of translation. The result was unexpected: four interpreters filing for resignation. There was a threat that after some time the manager would only work with an initiative translator.
INVENTOR DIRECTOR [v]
The company “Iskra” specializes in the production of electrical appliances: coffee grinders, razors, juicers, mixers. It has 150 employees. Eight years ago, the head of the company, a graduate engineer Shcheglov, began producing coffee grinders; every six months he released a new model.
The company has expanded greatly since Shcheglov founded it in 1993 with a team of 8 people. The success is due to two reasons: the instruments are of first-class quality and are reliable; The decisive success factor, however, is the marketing system: Shcheglov markets his 4 products by a team of 120 exclusively to private individuals. Responsible for sales is Mr. Gryzlov, who was previously Shcheglov’s first deputy.
• clearly organized and works only on a commission basis;
• sales people are very well trained;
• Sales receive 50% of the income from each unit sold.
The general rules for doing business with Shcheglov include the following:
• each device is guaranteed for 1 year;
• devices that have deteriorated during this time are not repaired, but replaced with new ones. The buyer simply sends his defective device along with the warranty card to the company and receives a new one in return. Thus, agents do not have to deal with complaints. The share of returned goods averaged about 2.5% of total sales over the past three years.
But lately there have been rumors that Shcheglov is going to sell his enterprise to an American company. He allegedly made a very lucrative offer. Gryzlov, who travels almost constantly around the service area and oversees groups of sales agents, heard about this from one of his people during a joint dinner. He learned about it from his wife, whom he calls every evening. My wife works for the company in the quality control department. All employees of the group, in which Gryzlov is currently located, without hesitation declare: if this rumor is true, then they will look for another job. They are not going to work under American leadership.
Gryzlov, disturbed by the bad news, returns to the company. The next morning, he learned from the chief secretary that Mr. Shcheglov had allegedly quarreled with his wife and wanted to get a divorce. They say that he literally threw his wife out into the street at night. However, she considers the story about the sale of Iskra to an American company a joke. After all, she, as Shcheglov’s secretary, would have known if such negotiations had taken place. By the way, no one else can contact the chief all week…
The commercial director of the company, Mr. Dubinin, informed Mr. Gryzlov that Mr. Shcheglov was currently in Paris. He knows nothing more.
A week later, on April 1, the director reappeared. On the same day, for the first time in the history of the company, a directorial assistant begins his work. His last name is Zhalev, and he has recently worked for the French subsidiary of Siemens Electric.
Mr. Shcheglov sends all employees an internal open information letter in which he refutes any intention to sell the company. These are allegedly irresponsible rumors. On the contrary, he is preparing a further expansion of the company: the company intends to include the sale of microwave ovens in its range in the future. Therefore, he expects each of the employees to continue to be responsible for their work, as before. In addition, in this letter, Mr. Shcheglov appointed the production meeting for the last day of this month, i.e. for Friday, April 28th.
During this month, the most incredible rumors were circulating: on April 19, Mr. Dubinin allegedly went to Hamburg to secretly negotiate with the Japanese there. The sales service will be dissolved and reorganized; future post