It should be remembered that the delay in determining the damage, especially in the case of mass victims of emergencies, is a delay in the provision of vital assistance. Assessment of the victim’s condition is based only on the data of questioning, external examination and palpation. You can not waste time on special research methods or wait for the arrival of a doctor. The nurse must correctly determine the condition of the victim and make the necessary decision.
You can not pay much attention to one victim, because the next one may not wait for your help.
The main criteria for assessing the condition of the victim
behavior and consciousness. Attention should be paid to the adequacy of the behavior of the victim. In case of expressed concern, lack of a correct assessment of one’s condition and the environment, incorrect or dangerous actions for the victim himself and those around him, it is necessary to isolate such a person and calm him down by giving valerian, a seduxen or relanium tablet. Inappropriate behavior may be a consequence of the development of reactive psychosis, neuropsychic stress, or a manifestation of a closed craniocerebral injury. In any case, such victims should not be left without attention and observation.
Lack of consciousness or its changes are a formidable symptom of a severe lesion. These victims need urgent medical attention. Manifestations of impaired consciousness can be different: lethargy, drowsiness, indifference to the environment. A person does not answer questions immediately, slowly, in a low voice, in monosyllables. If the victim does not answer questions at all and does not respond to your actions, this indicates a coma, that is, a lack of consciousness due to deep inhibition of the brain with a violation of its functions.
The presence of external damage. Abrasions, wounds, hemorrhages and their localization can tell the rescuer in which area of the body to look for an injury to the internal organs, especially when external injuries are combined with other symptoms. For example, an abrasion in the forehead and lack of consciousness may indicate that the victim has a traumatic brain injury.
Coloration of the skin and mucous membranes. Cyanosis, severe pallor or hyperemia of the skin and mucous membranes, in combination with other symptoms, demonstrate a clear deterioration in the victim’s condition, which requires immediate intervention by the rescuer.
The nature and frequency of breathing. This is an important and visible sign during external examination for determining the severity of the victim’s condition. It is impossible not to notice and take into account the nature of breathing (stridor, the presence of audible wheezing), the frequency and depth of respiratory movements, the participation of auxiliary respiratory muscles, pathological types of breathing (Kuusmaul, Cheyne-Stokes, Bijot).
Pulse condition. Changes in rhythm, tachycardia or bradycardia, poor filling and tension of the pulse indicate that there have been violations in the cardiovascular system. All of these signs do not require long-term research and are quite informative. The presence of other visible signs: convulsions, lack of movement in the limbs, anisocoria – completes the picture of the victim’s condition and indicates the need for urgent medical measures.
Sequential palpation simultaneously with the examination of the victim helps to determine the degree of damage. It is carried out starting from the head, neck, then moving to the chest, abdomen and pelvis and ending with palpation and examination
The main principle for assessing the condition of a victim in an emergency is to reduce the time of examination in order to immediately begin to provide assistance. In this case, first of all, life-threatening complications are eliminated – bleeding, respiratory failure, etc. And only after that they proceed to the application of aseptic dressings, transport tires and other measures that do not require urgent intervention. If there are several victims in the first place,
Help is provided to those people whose condition is life-threatening, and only after that other victims are taken care of.
A very important measure is the organization of the correct safe transportation of victims after first aid is provided to them. If this condition is neglected, all activities carried out in the focus of emergency situations may be useless due to a sharp or life-threatening deterioration in the condition of the victim during evacuation.