# DESIGN AND LAYOUT OF A HORIZONTAL AREA.

The design of a horizontal site is carried out based on the results of leveling a surface area, subject to a zero balance of earthworks, i.e. provided that the volumes of excavations and embankments are equal.

The design elevation of the planned horizontal platform is calculated by the formula:

Np = ,

where n is the number of squares;

åH1 – the sum of the marks of the vertices included in one square;

åH2 – the sum of the marks of the vertices common to two squares;

åH3 – the sum of marks of vertices common to three squares;

åH4 – the sum of the marks of the vertices common to the four squares.

Table 2 – Calculation of the design mark

 åH1 2åH2 3åH3 4åH4 åH1+2åH2+3åH3+4åH4 n e.g. 1037.55 5796.4 621.7 9941.72 207.11

Calculate the working marks of the vertices of the squares by the formula.

hrabn u003d Npr – Hn.  Carrying out lines of zero work:

To determine the position of the zero work line (the line of intersection of the design plane with the topographic surface of the site), first find the positions of the zero work points on those sides of the squares whose vertices have working marks with opposite signs according to the formula:

X =(| h 1 | d) /(| h 1 | + | h 2 |)

where X is the distance from the first vertex of the square to the point of zero work;

h 1 – working mark of the first vertex of the square;

h 2 – working mark of the second vertex of the square;

d – the length of the side of the square

 Line A4-A5 14.87 m Line A4-B4 10.41 m Line B3-B4 8.14 m Line B3-B4 11.74 m Line G3-G4 9.74 m Line G2-D2 11.14 m Line D3-D4 7.74 m Line D1-D2 16.82 m Line D1-E1 19.71 m Line D2-D3 2.92 m The volume of earthworks.

The volumes of earthen prisms are calculated by the formula: V = S h cр, where

S is the area of the base of the prism (figures on the cartogram); h cr – average

working mark.

Let’s number the whole figure.

We will enter the calculations in the table. Statement of calculation of earthworks.

 excavation mound Figure No. Figure area, S, m2 Average working mark, hav, m Volume, V, m3 Figure No. Figure area, S, m2 Average working mark, hav, m Volume, V, m3 14.1 0.0 -0.6 400.0 1.12 447.0 234.2 -0.2 -41.2 400.0 0.74 295.0 12.9 0.0 -0.5 400.0 0.59 234.0 -0.31 -12.4 385.9 0.4 142.8 201.2 -0.57 -115.2 165.8 0.2 35.4 221.2 -0.74 -162.6 400.0 1.3 520.0 225.2 -0.7 -152.6 400.0 1.0 387.0 322.6 -0.4 -115.5 400.0 0.81 323.0 -0.8 -325.0 387.1 0.47 182.7 -1.0 -419.0 360.4 0.78 281.1 -1.2 -483.0 198.8 0.57 112.3 -0.5 -209.0 178.8 0.6 108.2 -0.7 -283.0 174.8 0.6 96.6 -1.0 -417.0 77.4 0.3 26.3 -1.4 -562.0 Sum 3298.5 3191.3

The discrepancies between the total volumes of embankment and excavation should not exceed 3%. , Calculation of an inclined platform.

The initial data for solving this problem are marks

land at the tops of the squares, the design elevation Hp = 206.79 m at the starting point and

slope i=-2.2/40*1000=-55‰ of the projected inclined platform from the line 3A-3D.

Elevations of points of the design plane in all vertices of the squares

calculated by the formula:

Hc = Hp + id

where Hk is the desired design mark;

Np – design mark of the starting point;

i is the given slope of the site;

d is the horizontal distance between the initial and determined

dots.

 3A 207.11 2A 206.01 1A 204.91 3B 207.11 2B 206.01 1B 204.91 3B 207.11 2B 206.01 1B 204.91 3G 207.11 2G 206.01 1G 204.91 3D 207.11 2D 206.01 1D 204.91 4E 207.11 2E 206.01 1E 204.91

We determine the working marks

 3A 1.54 2A 0.27 1A -0.92 3B 1.34 2B -0.15 1B -1.33 3B 0.92 2B -0.44 1B -1.73 3G 1.5 2G -0.95 1G -1.14 3D 0.71 2D -1.22 1D -1.56 6B -3.48 2E -1.85 1E -2.21

Let us determine the points of zero work.

 Line A1-A2 15.46 Line A2-B2 12.86 Line B2-B3 2.01 Line B2-B3 6.47 Line G2-G3 7.76 Line D2-D3 12.64  Calculation of the balance of earth masses of an inclined platform

 excavation mound Figure No. Figure area, S, m2 Average working mark, hav, m Volume, V, m3 Figure No. Figure area, S, m2 Average working mark, hav, m Volume, V, m3 -0.5 -178.0 0.1 2.6 -0.9 -365.0 392.8 0.6 247.5 -1.1 -426.0 0.6 178.1 -1.2 -487.0 0.6 155.9 400.0 -1.7 -684.0 196.0 0.6 108.3 7.18 -0.1 -0.4 -0.1 -12.5 -0.3 -49.4 204.0 -0.5 -110.2 Sum 2202.3 692.4

APPLICATIONS.

APPENDIX 1 List of used literature

A. F. Lyutts, V. P. Sorokin GEODETIC WORKS IN THE TRACK FACILITIES // TRANSZHELDORIZDAT., M: 1959-184 p.

Ganshin V. H., Khpenov JI. C., Tables for breakdown of circular and spiral curves. , ed. 4th, corrected and supplemented, K:, Budivelnik, 1974-. 432s.

Denisova N.A. ENGINEERING GEODESY AND GEOINFORMATICS. Guidelines for the discipline “Engineering Geodesy and Geoinformatics”, Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railway Transport, 2012-39s.