Damage by electromagnetic radiation of the microwave range

Headache, dizziness, thirst, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting. In severe cases – psychomotor agitation, coma, convulsions, dilated pupils, dryness and hyperemia of the skin, tachypnea up to 40 breaths per minute, tachycardia, lowering blood pressure. Body temperature 40-42°C.

First aid. Remove the patient from the area affected by the emitter. Otherwise, first aid is the same as for heat stroke (see Instructions for Overheating).

First aid. The content of emergency medical care at the stage corresponds to that of heat stroke (see the Instructions section “Overheating”).

First aid. The content of emergency medical care at the stage corresponds to that of heat stroke (see the Instructions section “Overheating”).


Hypothermia (freezing, general hypothermia) develops as a result of a long stay in the cold without clothing appropriate for the weather. The probability of hypothermia increases in conditions of hypoxia (high mountains), as well as during military operations due to the possible wetting of uniforms.

General cooling should be considered a decrease in body temperature below 35 ° C. It can be most accurately judged by rectal temperature.

The prognosis for hypothermia directly depends on the duration and intensity of hypothermia, as well as on the speed of diagnosis and the effectiveness of treatment. The main principle of treatment with general cooling is warming.

The clinical picture of general hypothermia depends on the degree of violation of thermoregulation due to the general cooling of the human body. The classification of degrees of general cooling (stages of hypothermia) and their characteristic clinical picture is presented in the table.

Degree Stage Clinical picture
I (light) degree Adynamic stage Adynamia, chills, pallor of the skin, the appearance of “goose bumps”. Speech is slow (scanned), weakness, drowsiness. There is a decrease in the pulse with normal or slightly reduced blood pressure, breathing is normal. Rectal temperature is 35-33°C.
II (moderate) degree Stuporous stage Oppression of consciousness, difficulty in movement, pale, cold skin. Pulse 30-50 beats / min, weak filling, blood pressure 60-80 / 40-50 mm Hg. Art. Respiration 8-12 per minute, superficial. Rectal temperature drops to 29-27°C.
III (severe) degree convulsive stage Coma, constricted pupils, enophthalmos, flexor hypertonicity, tonic convulsions (crouching posture), convulsive contraction of masticatory muscles (trismus), vomiting and involuntary urination are possible. Pulse up to 30 bpm, weak filling. Blood pressure is sharply reduced or may not be determined. Breathing is rare (up to 3-4 per minute), superficial, periodic. Rectal temperature is below 29 ° C. When the rectal temperature drops to 24-20 ° C, death occurs.

First aid. Remove the patient from the zone of exposure to low temperature (and humidity). Move the victim to a warm room, cover with clothes, give a hot drink (tea, coffee). General body massage.

Call for medical assistance or prompt delivery to the medical unit.

First aid. Horizontal position with raised legs. Affected with general cooling of moderate and severe severity, active external rewarming is shown only in the dry-air form. Warming in the bathroom (with hypothermia I degree of severity) or from any heat source. The temperature in the bathroom for 15-20 minutes should be increased from 30 to 40°C. Warming in the bath continues until the rectal temperature reaches 35 ° C or until the subjective feeling of warmth appears in the victim. First of all, it is necessary to warm the chest, stomach, neck and neck. Massage. In the presence of consciousness – inside hot tea, coffee. oxygen inhalation.

Emergency catheterization of a peripheral (cubital) vein in order to provide venous access. Intravenously inject solutions warmed up to 40 ° C (400 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution or 5% dextrose solution).

First aid. The treatment and diagnostic measures of the previous stage are repeated, including pulse oximetry. If necessary, inhalation of oxygen through nasal catheters. The key therapeutic measure of the stage is to increase the patient’s basal body temperature above 35°C.

Emergency catheterization of a peripheral (cubital) vein in order to provide venous access. In severe hypotension, immediate intravenous infusion of plasma expanders (0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% dextrose solution, polyionic solutions) at a rate (0.5-1.0 l in 15-30 minutes), heated to 40 ° C.

If the rapid introduction of plasma expanders does not provide stabilization of blood pressure at the desired level, they resort to the jet administration of prednisolone 60-90-120 mg (dexamethasone 8-12-16 mg), and if the effectiveness is insufficient, to intravenous drip administration of adrenomimetics: in 400 ml of a 5% solution dextrose: 0.5-1 ml of 1% phenylephrine solution, or 1 ml of 0.2% norepinephrine solution).

After stabilization of blood pressure (SBP above 90 mm Hg), differential diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disease are performed. Control of kidney function. Continuation of infusion therapy with blood-substituting solutions, including, if necessary, intravenous administration of dopamine, norepinephrine, glucocorticoids under the control of blood pressure, CVP, hourly diuresis.

With the development of complications of general hypothermia (convulsive syndrome, rhythm and conduction disturbances of the heart) – see the relevant sections of the Instructions.

Evacuation to the hospital by ambulance in the supine position on a stretcher, accompanied by a doctor in compliance with measures that prevent re-cooling (heated machines, in sleeping bags), after an increase in basal temperature above 35 ° C and relief of persistent hypotension. On the way, according to indications, treatment is carried out aimed at maintaining hemodynamic parameters and oxygen inhalation.

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