Crisis of transition to adulthood.

So, the first crisis from (20 – 22 years) – the transition to early adulthood, the crisis of “breaking away from parental roots.” The main tasks and problems of youth: clarification of life plans and the beginning of their implementation; search for oneself, development of individuality; the final awareness of oneself as an adult with one’s rights and obligations, the choice of a spouse and the creation of one’s own family; specialization and acquisition of skills in professional activity


22. Normative crisis of adulthood at about 30 years old.

ABOUT 30 years – the transition to middle adulthood, the “golden age”, the period of the highest efficiency and return. 30 years is the age of the normative crisis of adulthood, associated with the discrepancy between the realm of the present and the realm of the possible, desirable, experienced in the form of anxiety and doubt. The crisis of 30 years is connected with the task of correcting the life plan from the height of accumulated experience, creating a more rational and orderly structure of life both in professional activity and in the family. Trying to overcome unpleasant feelings, a person comes to reevaluate the previous choices – spouse, career, life goals. Often there is a desire for a radical change in lifestyle; breakup of early marriages; professional reorientation, which, without personal restructuring, without in-depth reflection, often turn out to be just “illusory” ways out of the crisis.

Around the age of thirty, sometimes a little later, most people experience a crisis. It is expressed in a change in ideas about one’s life, sometimes in a complete loss of interest in what used to be the main thing in it, in some cases even in the destruction of the former way of life.

The crisis of thirty years is often called the crisis of the meaning of life. Indeed, it is with the period of the crisis of thirty years (the boundaries of which can sometimes shift in one direction or another) that the search for the meaning of existence is usually associated. This quest, like the whole crisis, marks the transition from youth to maturity. At the same time, the problem of the meaning of life arises not only in the crisis period under consideration. Often it appears already at the beginning of youth, and sometimes, with personal development, even in adolescence. Quite often there is this problem in the period of maturity.


23. The crisis of the “forty years”, “middle of life”, “turn of life”. Fracture model and transition model.

The period after 30 years – “roots and expansion” – is associated with solving material and housing problems, moving up the career ladder, expanding social ties, as well as with an analysis of one’s origins and with the gradual acceptance of parts of one’s self that were previously ignored.

The mid-life crisis, the crisis at 40, has received the most notoriety and, at the same time, the most controversial assessments. The first signs of a crisis, a discord in the inner world, are a change in attitude towards what previously seemed important, significant, interesting or, on the contrary, repulsive. The crisis of identity is expressed in the experience of a sense of non-identity to oneself, that which has become different.

At least one of the moments of the crisis is associated with the problem of diminishing physical strength, attractiveness. The discovery of waning vitality is a severe blow to self-esteem and self-concept.

The period from 30 to 40 years is often referred to as the “decade of the doomsday”. This is the age of summing up the preliminary results, when dreams and ideas about the future created in youth are compared with what was actually achieved. Such crisis contradictions are usually recognized by the person himself as a clear discrepancy, an oppressive discrepancy between the real I and the ideal I, between the realm of the present and the realm of the possible, the desired. This crisis is especially acute for people in creative professions.

In addition, social expectations are changing. The time has come to justify the hopes of society and create some kind of socially significant product, material or spiritual, otherwise society transfers its expectations to the representatives of the younger generation.

The crisis of the 40th anniversary is interpreted as a time of dangers and great opportunities. Awareness of the loss of youth, the fading of physical strength, changing roles and expectations are accompanied by anxiety, emotional decline, in-depth introspection.

Doubts about the correctness of the life lived are considered as the central problem of this age.

The founder of the medical and pedagogical movement, B. Livehud, who devoted many years to practical assistance to people during periods of age crises, directly connects the prospects for further human development with the success of overcoming the middle age crisis.

The crisis, in his opinion, is caused by doubts about the authenticity of the values of the extensive life that a person has led so far, doubts about the supremacy of material values and achievements based on efficiency and pragmatism. It is “a special chance to advance in the process of potential maturation” by answering the question, “What is my actual task?”

Moreover, it is more difficult to rethink oneself, to understand one’s new destiny, the “desired leitmotif” of life, precisely for those who, in the first period of life, managed to establish themselves in their personal attitude and be convinced of the correctness of the former line.

B. Livehud wrote about his own experience of the crisis of 40 years: “Knowledge of certain processes does not eliminate the need to experience and suffer them when faced with them. For several years I did not sleep at night and asked myself the question, what is the meaning of my life. At the same time, I had an interesting job as a child psychiatrist, and I ran a large institution. <...> I could often make sure that the push comes from outside, but that you do not react to it if you have not yet matured.

Achieving maturity is a process of development that no one, even the one who knows, can bypass.

Knowledge of the crisis still gives an advantage: a person realizes that it is not worth looking for someone else to play the role of “ruining life”, blaming extraneous obstacles; it is necessary to rethink the past and outline for oneself guidelines that lead to values of a higher order. Livehud himself found a way out in a new work, which set a new leitmotif of life, connected with the provision of spiritual and spiritual support to other people in extreme situations for them.

According to Erickson, in the period of middle adulthood, a person develops a sense of the preservation of the family (generativity), which is expressed mainly in interest in the next generation and its upbringing.

This stage of life is characterized by high productivity and creativity in various areas. The greatest risk for personal development is the reduction of life to the satisfaction of one’s own needs, the impoverishment of interpersonal relationships, the freezing of married life in a state of pseudo-intimacy.

R. Pekk, developing Erickson’s ideas, identifies four sub-crises, the resolution of which is a necessary condition for subsequent personal development:

– developing a person’s respect for wisdom (as opposed to physical courage);

– change of sexualization of relations by socialization (weakening of sexual roles);

– opposition to affective impoverishment associated with the loss of loved ones and the isolation of children; maintaining emotional flexibility, striving for affective enrichment in other forms;

– the desire for mental flexibility (overcoming mental rigidity), the search for new forms of behavior.

In order to successfully overcome crisis experiences, a person must develop emotional flexibility, the ability for emotional return in relation to growing children and aging parents. Resolution of sub-crises of middle age – revision of life goals towards greater restraint and realism, awareness of the limited time of life, correction of living conditions, development of a new image of the Self, giving more and more importance to spouses, friends, children, perception of one’s position as quite acceptable, which leads to a period new stability.

Finding a new goal, meaningful and at the same time more realistic, allows you to build a new structure of life and a new warmth of relationships. For people who have successfully overcome the crisis, after 50-60 years, everyday problems are pushed aside, horizons are expanding. It is possible to achieve a second creative culmination based on the generalization of life experience, streamlining, bringing it into work and transferring it to young people, whose professional and personal development brings joy.

The unresolved crisis experiences, the rejection of the activity of renewal returns the crisis with renewed vigor to the age of 50. Then in the future, ignoring the changes taking place with him, a person plunges into work, clinging to his administrative position, to his official chair. A person “stuck” on the values of achievement in hopeless attempts to strengthen his authority refers to the young as a threat to his position: “I am still here, I have to be reckoned with, the matter will be in my hands for a few more years.”

The unwillingness to take even a justified risk, often observed in adulthood, leads to a slowdown in the accumulation of new human capabilities, ultimately to the loss of a sense of the new, lagging behind life, and a decrease in professionalism. Moreover, as a result of the unprecedented pace of accelerating the development of society in the era of informatization, there is a tendency for the crisis to become younger, the onset of its characteristic experiences at a relatively younger age.

In modern reality, the role of education as one of the forms of human life in any

period of life. Continuous education is one of the ways to successfully resolve the crisis, the way for a person to acquire new

opportunities and a social mechanism for the preservation and reproduction of certain characteristics of youth. Of course, it is necessary not only to replenish knowledge, but to acquire spiritual, mental flexibility, a new professional worldview.

If new values, including those of a spiritual nature, have not been found, then all subsequent phases of life become a line leading to a tragic end.


24. Traditional attitude towards old age and old people in Russian culture.
25. Social stereotypes of old age perception.


26. The problem of periodization of old age.

Traditionally, the problem of self-determination is associated with adolescence, when almost all teenagers and young men think about their future profession, and most importantly, about their place in society. However, at each age and for each cultural and educational group, the problem of self-determination has its own specifics. The elderly, and even senile age, is no exception. As G.M. Brugman, in old age “losses prevail over gains” and “one of the main directions of psychogerontology is the study of various ways of adapting to these losses and the influence of these methods on life satisfaction.” “Having coped with losses, a person can give new meaning to his life in changed conditions,” writes G.M. Brugman, “This reconstruction of life meanings (meanings) can be considered as an important, and perhaps the most important task of development in old age” (Brugman, 1995, p. 132).

If we proceed from the fact that the essence of self-determination is the search for meaning in a certain activity (more broadly, in all life activities), then a number of questions immediately arise related to the self-determination of the elderly and old people:

1. Do all older people face the problem of finding meaning in the situation that has changed for them, and how is such a “new formation” related to the peculiarities of their age?

2. what is the typology of possible meanings for self-determining older people, i.e. What is the “space” of their self-determination in general?

3. How could psychological support be provided for self-determined older people?

Old people, as you know, are not born. Old age is the result, as well as the logical continuation of all previous life. It is also known that, at least in the public mind, old age is often associated with childhood: “Old, that small”, “Old people are twice children”, etc. Therefore, it makes sense at least briefly to understand how old age and old age relate to other age groups. periods of a person’s life, including childhood, with which old age still has something in common.

Many authors note that “childhood” itself was ignored for a long time both by representatives of the arts and by the psychological and pedagogical sciences (see Obukhova, 1996, pp. 7–16). As one of the childhood paradoxes of L.F. Obukhov, following D.B. Elkonin notes that “the higher a living being is among animals, the longer its childhood lasts, the more helpless this creature is at birth” (Obukhova, 1996, p. 7). In addition, it is also noted that “it is impossible to talk about the status of childhood without taking into account the position of parents in the social structure of society” (ibid., p. 9). In other words, the higher the level of development of a biological species, and the higher the level of development of society, the longer childhood.

But all these considerations apply to the period of old age. In their helplessness (the need for additional attention and care) they are like children, and most importantly, they do not know what to do with themselves, which will be discussed in more detail. The same pattern is observed with the elderly: the higher the level of socio-cultural and spiritual development of a particular society, the longer the old people live in this society. It is known that in general on the planet, and especially in developed countries, life expectancy has increased dramatically in recent years, according to forecasts, by the year 2000 there should be 590 million people over 60 years old, and by 2025 – already 1100 million people. Even in Russia, which is painfully going through the so-called “reforms”, according to official forecasts, the number of people over 50 years of age by the year 2000 will be 25% of the total population of the country (see Alperovich, 1997, p. 8).

Naturally, the question arises, what place will all these people take in society, and even in the conditions of the collapse of production and the degradation of culture? Simply leaving them to their fate, in particular, leaving them to deal with their own self-determination (or not noticing this problem at all) is the same crime as a crime against children. And if society, including socio-psychological institutions, is not able to help the elderly financially, then one should think about moral, psychological, and maybe even organizational support for the elderly in order to at least direct their remaining energy and life experience into a constructive direction. . It is important to organize this assistance in such a way that, on the one hand, it is not perceived as complete “guardianship” (far from all elderly and old people consider themselves “helpless”), and on the other hand, it is important to provide people of advanced age with public attention (not indifference). ) and the ability to independently build your own happiness (and in old age you can also be happy, if a meaning would be found …).

And yet, even despite the similarity of old age with other age periods (as already noted, old age is the result and continuation of the previous life), the main distinguishing feature of the elderly and old people is the richest life experience. Probably, the main problem of such people is that they do not always know how to make the best use of this experience. They especially suffer from the feeling of lack of demand for their experience, and, consequently, from the lack of demand for themselves. “No matter what step of the hierarchical ladder the old man is, high or low,” writes V. Alperovich, “he is constantly pursued by a gloomy griffin, plunging its claws into the very soul. The name of this monster is “Uselessness” (Alperovich, 1997, pp. 49–50). It is the problem of “uselessness”, “unclaimedness”, its experience and possible options for overcoming that can become a starting point for highlighting the main age-psychological characteristics of the elderly and senile ages.

The feeling of “uselessness” or the opposite feeling – “necessity” highlight another important concept – self-esteem. It is in old age that human dignity passes its main test, because at this age it is not just a person’s behavior in a particular situation that is tested, but the whole life is tested, how successful or unsuccessful it was, i.e. how worthy or unworthy she was. And in general, did a person manage to realize his chance to leave behind at least something significant in this world. It is self-esteem that is the core of personality. Therefore, the meaning of self-determination in the elderly and senile age is, first of all, the search for an opportunity to establish oneself as a valuable member of a given society, as well as a specific social group and family.

The old man is ready to sacrifice a lot and do a lot in order to be simply respected, treated as a person. In general, the following fundamental options for self-determination are possible here: 1) rely on one’s past merits (demand respect for what happened before); 2) constantly confirm their usefulness to society or the family with specific real deeds; 3) simply reconcile with the existing state of affairs (either when the old man is not respected at all, is not considered a person, or when he is “respected” for fictitious merits in the past and present, and this is also possible …).

B.Livehud believes that if in adulthood (in the “middle phase of life”) a person has managed to develop an interest in art, science, nature or social life, then in old age (after 56 years) he “will be able to draw more strength for life from this spiritual source”, but who in the middle phase of life pursued only personal success and career, or passively lived his work and life circumstances, he “becomes by the mid-fifties a tragic person, feeling sadness for the good old days, feeling threatened for yourself in everything new” (Livehud, 1994, pp. 48–49).

E.F. Zeer connects the transition to the elderly and senile periods with the extinction of a person’s professional development and the experience of the following crises: the crisis of loss of professional activity (55–60 years old) and the crisis of socio-psychological adequacy (65–70 years old) (see Zeer, 1997, p. 142–145). V.M. Morgun and N.Yu. Tkachev divide the entire senile age into the following periods: old age (55–75 years), senile age (75–90 years) and longevity (over 90 years) and characterize these periods in accordance with the criteria adopted in domestic age psychology: the social situation of development, leading activity and personality neoplasms (Morgun, Tkacheva, 1981, pp. 62–80).

In our opinion, the following periods of old age can be distinguished, also based on an analysis of the social situation of development, leading activities and personal neoplasms of most people who have entered an era that can be conditionally called “after maturity”:

1. elderly, pre-retirement age (from about 55 years old to retirement, waiting and preparing for retirement);

2. the period after retirement (the first few years of retirement, the development of a new social status);

3. the period of old age itself, the period of stable old age (a few years after retirement and until the moment of serious deterioration in health);

4. old age and longevity in conditions of significant deterioration in health;

5. longevity with relatively good health, stable longevity (after about 75–80 years and older).


27. Psychological tasks of the final stage of the life cycle.

The developmental goals of development in old age can be summarized as follows:

– adaptation to age-related changes – bodily, psychophysiological;

– adequate perception of old age (opposition to negative

stereotypes);

– reasonable allocation of time and purposeful use of the remaining years of life;

– role reorientation, rejection of old and search for new role positions;

– opposition to affective impoverishment associated with the loss of loved ones and the isolation of children; maintaining emotional flexibility, striving for affective enrichment in other forms;

– the desire for mental flexibility (overcoming mental rigidity), the search for new forms of behavior;

– striving for inner integrity and comprehension of the life lived


28. The problem of “age segregation” of the elderly.


29. Theories of old age.

There are many approaches to understanding and studying old age. It is very important to be aware of the basic idea of old age that underlies this or that approach, since the specificity of the perception of old age simultaneously dictates a range of theoretical issues and prescribes ways to solve numerous practical problems.

Old age as a biological problem. Old age as a basic biological property of all living organisms is considered in the theories of “programmed” and “non-programmed” aging, in the theories of “wear and tear”, “cellular waste”, aging of the immune system and cytological theory. Each of these theories substantiates its own model of the body’s aging mechanism. Biological theories include the theory of the founder of Russian gerontology A.A. Bogomolets, who considered the violation of the harmony of the physiological processes of the body to be the main factor in aging, and the theory of aging as intoxication by I.I. Mechnikov. Gerontologist V.V. Frolkis defined old age as a time of reduction in the adaptive capabilities of the organism. Analyzing the fundamental mechanisms of aging, Frolkis not only stated the fact of a decrease in the adaptive capabilities of the body, but showed self-regulation tendencies that resist destruction and are aimed at stabilizing the body’s vital activity and increasing life expectancy. The concept of anti-aging, or vitaukta (from the Latin vita – life, auktum – increase), is an important aspect of the adaptive-regulatory theory of aging he proposed.

The approach based on the idea of aging programmed by evolution, included in the genetic code (“programmed aging”), and the approach according to which cell damage is not genetically predetermined, but occurs randomly, as a result of failures (“non-programmed aging”), are very general biological character in explaining the causes of involution in old age. It is important that, depending on the proposed mechanism of aging, a system of predictions of the future state of the body, measures to prevent negative consequences is built, but the role of the psychological factor in lengthening human life is not taken into account.

Old age as a social problem. In the theory of desocialization (the theory of liberation, “exiting the game”), the process of consistent destruction of social ties is considered inevitable.

The phenomenon of dissociation is expressed in a change in motivation, in focusing on one’s inner world and a decline in communication. Objectively, “dissociation” is manifested in the loss of former social roles, in the deterioration of health, in a decrease in income, in the loss or alienation of loved ones. Subjectively, it is experienced by the individual as uselessness, narrowing the range of interests, focusing them on oneself.

The essence of the theory is that the process of desocialization is biologically and psychologically justified and inevitable. The gap between the individual and society occurs shortly after retirement, by inertia, an elderly person continues to maintain old connections, is interested in what is happening at work. Then these connections become more and more artificial and are gradually interrupted. The amount of information received by a person decreases, the circle of his interests narrows, activity decreases, and therefore the aging process accelerates.

The theory of activity (“new employment”) is the opposite of the theory of desocialization; it focuses on the positive relationship between the level of activity and satisfaction with life. Activity theory suggests that old people should be involved in society, which should mean that the more active someone is, the more satisfied they are. The concept of an uninterrupted life path interprets old age as a battlefield for the preservation of the old lifestyle. Social approaches to old age include consideration of more particular problems of the relationship between an old person and other people (members of his family, social workers). These are very topical problems of “assistant tension”, cruelty to the elderly, and domestic violence.

Old age as a cognitive problem. This approach is based on the so-called “deficit model” – the process of loss or reduction of emotional and intellectual abilities. The inhibition theory (containment) believes that old people become less skillful due to difficulties in perceiving external information and therefore they concentrate on tasks at the “manual” level. According to the “disuse” theory, intellectual skills deteriorate later in life as a result of underuse.

Another version of the cognitive theory of aging refers to the personal side of aging. It examines how an older person interprets the changes that are happening to him. In this case, three areas play the main role: personal experiences (deterioration of well-being, decrease in attractiveness), features of social status (inclusion, integration or isolation), awareness of the finiteness of one’s own being.

Complex theories of aging. Theories that emphasize one of the aspects of aging are opposed to complex theories. Aging is multifaceted, it consists of several interrelated biological, social, psychological processes. There is no just aging, aging in general – each person has their own, personal way of aging. So, for example, J. Turner and

D. Helms identifies three interrelated and overlapping processes:

– psychological aging – how an individual feels and imagines his own aging process, how he relates to the process of his aging, comparing it with the aging of other people;

– biological aging – biological changes in the body with age (involution);

– social aging – how an individual associates aging with society; how to perform social roles.

In the theoretical model of P. Baltes, it is emphasized that development has an “all-age” character, continues throughout life, is a multidimensional, multidirectional process, plastic and includes the processes of growth (acquisitions) and decline (losses). According to this theory, development is determined by a complex interaction of a number of factors: external (social environment), internal (biological) and the synthesis of biological and social. These factors set three directions of development: normative age, normative historical and non-normative development of life. Normative age development is associated with the transition from one stage to another: in the aspect of biological aging (the onset of puberty or menopause) and in the aspect of social aging (the impact of retirement on behavior).

Normative historical development takes place in the context of those global socio-historical events that were experienced by an entire age group (for example, most 60-year-old Britons have experience in getting food on cards, while their 20-year-old fellow citizens are not familiar with this). Abnormal life development is due to the influence of events unique to the life of a particular individual (playing a major role in a film at the age of 5, receiving a Nobel Prize). According to the author, the strength of the influence of factors differs depending on age. In old age, the influence of normative age factors is great, and it is necessary to take into account the accumulated effect of non-normative personal events.

30. Features of the cognitive sphere in old age. + 32-33 question

The decrease in mental tone, strength and mobility is the main age characteristic of mental response in old age. Gerontologist E.Ya. Sternberg concludes that the main thing that characterizes aging is a decrease in mental activity, which is expressed in a narrowing of the volume of perception, difficulty in concentrating attention, and a slowdown in psychomotor reactions.

In older people, reaction time increases, processing of perceptual information slows down, and the speed of cognitive processes decreases.

With regard to favorable forms of mental aging, it is essential that, despite these changes in strength and mobility, the mental functions themselves remain qualitatively unchanged and practically intact. The change in the strength and mobility of mental processes in old age turns out to be purely individual.

P. Baltes developed the idea that the intellectual sphere of an elderly person is maintained through the mechanism of selective optimization and compensation. Selectivity is manifested in the gradual reduction of activities, when only the most perfect are selected and all resources are concentrated on them. Some lost qualities, such as physical strength, are compensated by new strategies for performing actions.


31. Age-related changes in the personality of an elderly person.

Among a number of factors that determine the social and psychological status of an elderly person, an important place is occupied by the factor of physical health, physical activity, the value of which is the higher, the older the age. The physical condition, well-being largely determines the place of an elderly person in the family and in society. With pronounced forms of physical decline, decrepitude, pronounced age-related changes in the musculoskeletal system, blindness, the position of the old man approaches the position of a somatic patient. The painful nature of physical withering determines the form of mental aging and, in general, mental life. At the same time, everything that makes up the content of the experiences of aging itself, a new relationship with others, recedes into the background.

The ongoing physiological changes are experienced and realized by a person. For the first stages of aging, increased attention to age-related changes in physical condition is especially typical. The first signs of wilting (loss of teeth, the appearance of excess weight) cause a desire to find the cause of unpleasant phenomena and get rid of them with the help of medications. In the mind of a person, old age (as a biological process) is reflected mainly as a physical ailment, a painful condition. In essence, aging is a state of constantly experienced physical malaise, expressed either to a greater or lesser extent. It appears in the form of symptoms that are mostly familiar to a person from earlier age periods: lethargy, increased fatigue, pain in various parts of the body, usually of short duration. These feelings of physical ill health are a reflection of the involutionary process itself. The age-related decline in physical strength and mobility underlies such a familiar and familiar appearance of the old person.

Older women with better indicators of physical health (compared to men) pay more attention to their health, visit doctors more often, and complain more often about their senile ailments.

Physical disadvantage is an important cause of dissatisfaction with life in old age. Frequent consequences of this are the impoverishment of feelings, hardening, a progressive loss of interest in the environment, a change in relationships with loved ones, a decrease in all types of self-esteem.

However, the attitude towards one’s own aging is an active element of mental life in old age. Moments of awareness of the fact of physical and mental age-related changes, recognition of the naturalness of sensations of physical ill health constitute a new level of self-consciousness. Tolerance or intolerance of an elderly person to the limitation of physical strength and capabilities, to physical weakness with painful sensations reflect the attitude towards their own aging.

With the strategy of active coping with difficulties, a conscious attitude to age-related changes that continue to be revealed over the years is revealed. This new position is more dependent on the person himself. For example, it can be an ironic look at oneself – an old man, a playful agreement with the loss of former physical capabilities, with painful sensations.

Indifference to painful and painful sensations, which is often observed in cases of extreme old age, consider

vayutsya as evidence of a deep decline in vitality. Motivational-need sphere. It was found that the list, nomenclature of needs in old age is largely the same as in previous periods of life. According to K. Roschak, the structure, the hierarchy of needs is changing: the need to avoid suffering, the need for security, the need for autonomy and independence, the need to project onto other mental manifestations can be traced to the center of the need sphere. And at the same time, there is a shift to more distant planes of needs for creativity, love, self-actualization and a sense of community.

In the late period of life, there is a general change in the temporal life perspective. As the past lengthens, the future seems more limited and less real. Life in the present and memories of the past are now more important than the future. The phenomenon of older people’s appeal to the memories of the past, their special emotional coloring is an essential moment in the mental life of the elderly.

Many old people begin to live “one day”, filling each such day with health care, household chores.

Reducing the “axis of the future” and emphasizing the importance of everyday affairs (including to maintain a sense of employment, need, usefulness for oneself and others) restructures the experience of psychological time. The phenomenon of the acceleration of the movement of time is described, when years and decades subjectively flow faster and faster. On the other hand, “time stretching” is found, when some small event (a visit to a clinic or a store) emotionally fills the whole day.

In late adulthood, important aspects of personality remain unchanged. Constancy refers, for example, to such personality characteristics as the level of neuroticism (anxiety, depression, impulsivity), the ratio of extraversion and introversion, the level of openness to experience.

According to a number of authors, a new life position is rarely developed in old age. Rather, it is a sharpening and modification of an existing life position under the influence of new circumstances. The personality of the old man still remains itself.


32. The peculiarity of the intellect of the elderly.

Within the framework of a hierarchical approach to the consideration of intelligence, when characterizing cognitive changes in old age, “crystallized intelligence” and “mobile intelligence” are distinguished. Crystallized intelligence is determined by the amount of knowledge acquired during a lifetime, the ability to solve problems based on the available information (define concepts, explain why stealing is not good). Fluid intelligence implies the ability to solve new problems for which there are no familiar ways. The assessment of general intelligence (Q-factor) consists of a combination of assessments of both crystallized and mobile intelligence.

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