computer experiment

A computer experiment with a system model during its research and design is carried out in order to obtain information about the characteristics of the process of functioning of the object under consideration. The main task of planning computer experiments is to obtain the necessary information about the system under study under resource constraints (computer time, memory, etc.). Among the particular tasks solved when planning computer experiments are the tasks of reducing the cost of computer time for modeling, increasing the accuracy and reliability of modeling results, checking the adequacy of the model, etc.

The effectiveness of computer experiments with models significantly depends on the choice of the experimental plan, since it is the plan that determines the volume and procedure for conducting calculations on a computer, methods for accumulating and statistically processing the results of system modeling . Therefore, the main task of planning computer experiments with a model is formulated as follows: it is necessary to obtain information about the object of modeling, given in the form of a modeling algorithm (program), with minimal or limited expenditure of machine resources for the implementation of the modeling process.

The advantage of computer experiments over natural ones is the possibility of complete reproduction of the experimental conditions with a model of the system under study . A significant advantage over full-scale ones is the ease of interrupting and resuming computer experiments, which allows the use of sequential and heuristic planning techniques that may not be feasible in experiments with real objects. When working with a computer model, it is always possible to interrupt the experiment for the time necessary to analyze the results and make decisions about its further course (for example, on the need to change the values of the model characteristics).

The disadvantage of computer experiments is that the results of some observations depend on the results of one or more previous ones, and therefore they contain less information than independent observations.

In relation to the database, a computer experiment means the manipulation of data in accordance with the set goal using the tools of the DBMS. The purpose of the experiment can be formed based on the general purpose of the simulation and taking into account the requirements of a particular user. For example, there is a database “Dean’s office”. The overall goal of creating this model is to manage the educational process. If you need to obtain information about the progress of students, you can make a request, i.e. carry out an experiment to select the desired information.

The DBMS environment toolkit allows you to perform the following operations on data:

1) sorting – ordering data according to some attribute;

2) search (filtering) – selection of data that satisfies a certain condition;

3) creation of calculation fields – data transformation into another form based on formulas.

Information model management is inextricably linked with the development of various criteria for searching and sorting data. Unlike paper file cabinets, where sorting is possible according to one or two criteria, and the search is generally carried out manually – by sorting through cards, computer databases allow you to set any sorting forms for various fields and various search criteria. The computer will sort or select the necessary information without time expenditure according to the given criterion.

For successful work with the information model, database software environments allow you to create calculation fields in which the original information is converted into a different form. For example, based on semester grades, a special built-in function can calculate a student’s GPA. Such calculated fields are used either as additional information or as criteria for searching and sorting.

A computer experiment includes two stages: testing (checking the correctness of operations) and conducting an experiment with real data.

After formulating formulas for calculated fields and filters, you need to make sure that they work correctly. To do this, you can enter test records for which the result of the operation is known in advance.

The computer experiment ends with the output of the results in a form convenient for analysis and decision making. One of the advantages of computer information models is the ability to create various forms of presentation of output information, called reports. Each report contains information that meets the purpose of a particular experiment. The convenience of computer reports lies in the fact that they allow you to group information according to given criteria, enter the final fields for counting records by group and in general for the entire database, and then use this information to make a decision.

The environment allows you to create and store several typical, frequently used report forms. Based on the results of some experiments, you can create a temporary report that is deleted after copying it to a text document or printing. Some experiments do not require reporting at all. For example, it is required to select the most successful student for awarding an increased scholarship. To do this, it is enough to sort by the average score of grades in the semester. The required information will contain the first entry in the list of students.

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