Reimbursement of fard prayers (according to the Shafi’i madhhab)
It is necessary to compensate for all the fard prayers that a Muslim has missed since the age of majority, and there is a unanimity of scholars (ijma’) on this
Sheikhul Islam, imam al-Nawawi (631-676 x / 1233-1277 m) said in his book “al-Majmoo”:
“Among the scholars, whose opinion is taken into account, there is a unanimous opinion (ijma’) regarding the obligatory completion of prayer for the one who left it intentionally.
Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Hazm [zahirit] contradicted this ijma, who said: “It is impossible to restore the missed prayer and it will not be valid, but one should [instead] increase the performance of good deeds and voluntary prayers so that the Scales become heavy on the Day of Judgment and ask Allah for forgiveness and do repentance.”
What Ibn Hazm said is erroneous, both from the side of contradicting the unanimous opinion (ijma’), as well as from the point of view of evidence and there is no evidence in what he said in the basis.
And what proves the obligatory fulfillment of prayer is a hadith transmitted from Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, that “The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ordered the one who had sexual intercourse during the day during Ramadan, along with atonement ( kaffar) for this, keep one day of fasting”, i.e. in exchange for the day on which he deliberately broke the fast with sexual intercourse. Narrated by al-Bayhaqi with a good isnad and similarly narrated by Abu Dawud.
And [besides] if it is obligatory to compensate for the prayer left due to forgetfulness, then the intentionally left to compensate is even more important (primary).
[Imam an-Nawawi, Al-Majmoo, Kitab as-Salat, Bab Mawakitu as-Salat, 3/76]
Also, Imam an-Nawawi (631-676 x / 1233-1277 m) said in his book Sharh Sahih Muslim:
“Some followers of the Zahirite madhhab argue that a prayer missed without a reason does not need to be compensated. They consider this sin to be so great that it cannot be atoned for by recompense alone. This is a mistake and ignorance. Allah knows best.”
[Imam al-Nawawi, Sahihu Muslim bi Sharhin Nawawi, 5/183]
The procedure for restoring fard prayers
Shafi’i scholar Zainuddin al-Malibari said about making up for missed prayers:
إن فاتَ بلا عُذْرٍ، فيلزَمْهَ قال شيخنا أحمد بن حجر رحمه الله تعالى: والذي يظهرُ أنه يلزمهُ صرفُ جميعِ زمنِهِ للقضاءِ ما عدا ما يحتاج لصرفِهِ فيما لا بُدّ منه، وأنه يَحْرُمُ عليه التَّطَوُّعَ،
If a person missed [prayer] without a valid reason, then he is obliged to make up for it quickly. Our Sheikh Ahmad Ibn Hajar, may Allah have mercy on him, said:
“It is obligatory to spend all your time on making up for missed prayers, with the exception of the time necessary to perform the most necessary things. And it is forbidden (haram) to perform sunnah prayers (at-tatavu’).
It is advisable to hurry [in making up for prayers], if they were missed for a good reason, like deep sleep and also forgetfulness.
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It is desirable to observe a sequence in the reimbursement [of prayers], for example, reimburse the morning prayer before lunch, etc. And it is also desirable to make up [a missed prayer], missed for a good reason, before performing a timely one, if there is no danger that you will miss a timely one, even if you miss a collective prayer, according to a reliable word. If you miss a prayer without a valid reason, then it is obligatory to get ahead of [the refundable prayer over the timely one]. As for the fact that if there is a danger of missing a timely prayer, at least part of it, even a small one, beyond the time limits of this prayer, then you must first perform a timely one. It is obligatory to make up a prayer missed without a valid reason earlier than a prayer missed for a good reason, even if the sequence of compensation is violated, since it is desirable to follow the sequence, and haste [in compensation] is obligatory.
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It is advisable to postpone ratibat prayers in order to perform reimbursable prayers missed for a valid reason, and it is obligatory to postpone [ratibat] if prayers are missed without a valid reason.
Compensation for missed fard prayers, not knowing their exact number (according to the Shafi’i madhhab)
In books on Shafi’i fiqh, such as Fathul Allam [Fathul Allam 2/80] and Nihayatu Zayn [Nihayatu Zayn 13 p.] it is written:
“[According to the first opinion] if a person has many missed prayers, the number of which he does not know, then he should make up the prayers that he is sure of missing, and it is not necessary to make up for what he has doubts about [whether he did it or not ], Imam al-Kaffal said this.
But the mu’tamad (basic) opinion is what Qadi Hussain said, namely: he must compensate for what is beyond the scope of prayers, in which he is sure of performing ”[This text of the book“ Nihayatu Zain ”and in Fathul Allama. The text is slightly different, but the meaning is the same].
Imam Shibramalusi writes: “The difference between these opinions is that the prayer, the reimbursement of which he doubts, according to the first opinion, it is not necessary to reimburse, and according to the second, it is necessary” [These words are given in the book Fathul Allam, and in the book Nihayatu Zayn” they are not]
For example: A person knows for sure that after 30 years he did not miss a single prayer, and he is sure of this, but until the age of 28 he definitely did not perform prayer, and he also does not doubt it. But he no longer remembers whether he missed prayers from 28 to 30 years. According to the first opinion, he should reimburse only those prayers that he is sure of missing, for example, prayers he missed before the age of 28, and he should not reimburse prayers from 28 to 30 years. And according to the second, and strong opinion, he should reimburse all prayers up to 30 years.