Comparative analysis of the story "Telegram" and the chapter "Notches on the Heart" from the book "Golden Rose"

MBOU “Cherki-Grishinsky basic general education

School of the Buinsky Municipal District

Republic of Tatarstan”


Completed by: ninth grade student

Khabibullina Leyla Rinatovna

Teacher: Akhmetzyanova

Fania Himmatullovna


Contents Page

Introduction 3

Chapter 1. Comparative analysis of the story “Telegram” 4-5

and chapters “Notches on the Heart” from the book “Golden Rose”

Chapter 2. Determining the role of a detail in the story “Telegram” 5-8

as the main artistic means for creating images

and expressions of the author’s position.

Conclusion 9

References 10

Appendix. Results of sociological research on the problem


When reading works of fiction, I always think about the questions: How do writers create their works? How are unforgettable artistic images born? How does the writer’s word acquire the power of sound and impact on the reader? Thanks to what works of art created hundreds of years ago still excite us, excite our imagination, awaken high feelings in us? How is it that in long-written works we see portraits of our contemporaries and even ourselves, find solutions to the urgent problems of today’s life? I have always wanted to visit the writer’s office and, as it were, follow the work of his creative thought step by step.

To explore the process of creating a work of art, to find answers to my questions, I decided to look into the creative workshop of K. G. Paustovsky. I chose this writer, firstly, because one of my favorite works of Russian literature is the story “Telegram”, and secondly, because this year marks the 120th anniversary of the birth of Paustovsky, the author of this wonderful work. The relevance of this study, in my opinion, also lies in the fact that the story written in 1946 still sounds sharp and topical today, the problems raised by the author are so modern, their solution is so necessary, as if more than half a century had not passed since the time of its writing. That’s why I decided to tackle this issue.

The object of our study was the story of K. G. Paustovsky “Telegram”, and the subject of the study was the artistic means used in the story to create images and express the author’s position, the problem of the story.

The purpose of the work: to explore the artistic means used by Paustovsky in the story “Telegram” to create images and express the author’s position on the problems raised in the story.


-read the story of K.G. Paustovsky “Telegram” and the chapter “Notches on the Heart” from his story about the writer’s work “Golden Rose”;

– compare Paustovsky’s memoirs and literary text;

– to collect and study the material available in print media and on the Internet on the work of Paustovsky, based on the analysis of his story “Telegram”;

– write out from the dictionary of literary terms the definitions of the concepts necessary for the study;

– conduct an independent study on the text of the story “Telegram”;

-to conduct a sociological study about the life of lonely elderly people in our village;

– to process the data obtained during the study;

– write a research paper and submit it for defense.

Chapter 1.

Comparative analysis of the story “Telegram” and the chapter “Notches on the Heart” from the book “Golden Rose”

One of Paustovsky’s books is called The Golden Rose. It contains the writer’s thoughts about writing. There is a chapter in the book called “Nicks in the Heart”, in which the author tells on the basis of which he wrote the story “Telegram”.

Talking about the history of the creation of the story “Telegram”, Paustovsky emphasizes the reality of the events described, personal acquaintance with the characters. The name of the father of Katerina Ivanovna, the artist Pozhalostin, is specifically named. The neighbor’s girl, who “ran in two or three times a day for all sorts of small household crafts,” was called Nyurka.

In the memories we see the presence of Paustovsky, we hear his voice. The author settled in the artist’s house. In the evenings he drank tea with Katerina Ivanovna. And Paustovsky took Katerina Ivanovna for a walk in the autumn garden, and he sent a telegram to Nastya in Leningrad. Katerina Ivanovna died, one might say, in the hands of the writer. “I had to close her eyes. … I carefully pressed her half-closed eyelids and suddenly a dull tear rolled down from under them, ”says Paustovsky. He chose a place for the grave in the cemetery. He also saw Nastya, who arrived three days after the funeral. “All of the above – this is the writer’s everyday material from which prose is born”, – these are the words that end “Notches on the Heart”, which formed the basis of the wonderful story “Telegram”.

Comparing Paustovsky’s memoirs and the literary text, we saw that the writer, “selecting” the facts of reality, “with the help of imagination creates a semblance of life”: that “creative imagination does not distort the truth, but helps the writer to reproduce it more fully and deeper.” Paustovsky duplicated the story “Telegram” with a description of the real events of his life, thereby showing how a writer creates a story – a work of art – from a lot of everyday material.

If for the artist the main tools are paints and brushes, for the composer – sounds, then for the writer and poet words. Through the word, we comprehend the essence of the work, which means we are trying to understand how the author perceives and feels the world. The story “Telegram” provides a wonderful opportunity to follow the capacity of the writer’s words. Comprehension of the author’s position is not easy, especially if the author’s voice, as in the “Telegram”, is almost inaudible. Before us was the task – to penetrate into the creative laboratory of the writer, to understand the originality of his talent.

Comparing these works, we were looking for answers to the questions: What new did the author introduce, and what did he leave the same? What episodes did the writer think of in the story? How did the writer build the composition and system of images in the story? What artistic means did Paustovsky use to create images and to express the author’s position?

During the analytical reading of the story, we made the following observations. The story, unlike the memoirs, is written in the third person. The writer no longer takes a direct part in the life of Katerina Ivanovna. In the “Telegram” the narrator seems to withdraw himself: he is in the position of an observer. Next to Katerina Ivanovna in the story is not a writer, but old Tikhon. However, the invisible presence of Paustovsky is so tangible, his position as an author is so strong that the “notches in the heart” of the reader after reading the story do not weaken, but become even deeper.

After carefully re-reading the story, we saw that the author’s “I” reveals itself in all the variety of relationships between the main components of the text: in composition, in the selection and internal linking of episodes, in juxtaposition of characters, in the speech of characters, the specifics of the details of the landscape, interior, portrait and other artistic funds. We were especially interested in the role of details in the story.

Chapter 2

Determining the role of a detail in the story “Telegram” as one of the main artistic means of creating images and expressing the author’s position .

In the course of the research work, we turned to literary reference books, dictionaries, articles posted on Wikipedia, and found in them several definitions of a detail as an artistic means. Here are some of them.

Artistic detail is a graphic and expressive detail, a characteristic feature of any object, part of everyday life, landscape, interior, portrait, etc., carrying an increased semantic load, characterizing not only the entire object (character, space, time in a work), part of which it is, but also determining in many respects the reader’s attitude towards him.

“Artistic detail (from French detail – detail, trifle) – expressive detail of the product, carrying the meaning. semantic and ideological-emotional. load, characterized by increased associativity; usually to D. x. are attributed to the subject details in a broad sense: details of everyday life, landscape, portrait, interior, private situation, as well as gesture, subjective reaction, action and speech when it becomes the subject of reproduction (the so-called speech characteristic) “

A detail is a detail that the author endowed with a significant semantic load. An artistic detail is one of the means of creating or revealing the image of a character. An artistic detail can reproduce the features of everyday life or furnishings. Details are also used by the author when creating a portrait or landscape (portrait and landscape detailing), an action or state (psychological detailing), a hero’s speech (speech detailing), etc. Often, an artistic detail can be both portrait, everyday, and psychological at the same time.

Thus, we understand that the writer needed this artistic detail in order to visualize and characterize the characters and their environment, life, and so on.

The saturation of the work with artistic details is determined, as a rule, by the desire of the author to achieve an exhaustive completeness of the image. A detail that is especially significant from an artistic point of view often becomes the motive or leitmotif of the work.

Landscapes, interiors and portraits benefit greatly from the use of detail: it is this detail that gives individuality and concreteness to a given picture of nature, setting or appearance of a character.

Having studied the theoretical material, we again turned to the text of the story “Telegram” and found many artistic details in it.

Let’s read the 1st part. The story begins with a landscape sketch . Everything described takes place in the cold autumn. The author paints a gloomy picture: “October was extremely cold, rainy … The tangled grass in the garden fell down …” (Tangled, because it was high, unmowed , wet from the rain.) , but did not float), clinging to the flying willows, loose clouds ” (the clouds go low; they seem to dissolve in space, devoid of strict outlines). “The rain was annoyingly pouring out of them” (it didn’t pour, but poured – the rain was fine, like sand, and it rained incessantly, annoyingly, importunately).

Against the background of the picture of late autumn, a detail comes through brightly – a small sunflower stands out near the fence , which “everything bloomed and could not blossom and crumble in any way.” He is lonely among the gray, black, and therefore becomes sad. Autumn makes us understand the terrible loneliness, the emptiness around the old woman. Observing the landscape, we see that there is a gradual increase in the signs of late autumn (the principle of gradation), and the reader has a growing sense of anxiety, a feeling of near tragedy.

We conclude: the landscape conveys the state of the heroine, and the detail emphasizes her lonely old age. Only the past, no present. This is the story of a poor mother’s life.

Due to what other details does the author enhance the feeling of the absolute loneliness of the old woman? This is the interior of “a room where the bitter smell of unheated stoves lingered, the dusty Vestnik Evropy, yellowed cups on the table, a samovar that had not been cleaned for a long time and paintings on the walls.” Wrinkled gloves, ostrich feathers, a glass-beaded black hat – all these things dear to Katerina Ivanovna, which have become a part of her life, her memory, are things no one needs. “I’ll hand it over to the scrap,” Manyusha said about them. Several times the text mentions an old sagging sofa. Feeling unkempt, neglected. The blindness of the poor old woman and the almost complete absence of a voice … The author begins his story like this, and thus sets the reader to the tone of the narration, creates a background against which the action will unfold. Such a beginning helps to understand the condition of Katerina Petrovna.

Studying the text of the story further, we found a few more details that carry a large semantic load. Here they are.

The kerosene night light trembled on the table. He seemed to be the only living being in the abandoned house – without this weak fire, Katerina Petrovna would not have known how to live until morning.

The night lamp is “the only living being”, he shudders, conveying the mistress’s anxiety, her pain, sadness. The kerosene night light emphasizes the immensity of the heroine’s loneliness. At the same time, he seems to be signaling trouble, asking for help and participation.

“… unwashed windows , where, since last year, between the frames, once yellow autumn leaves, and now decayed and black leaves , lay on top of cotton wool” emphasize the perishability, the finiteness of everything on earth.

The gate, boarded up for several years, the forgotten stars again emphasize the loneliness of poor Katerina Ivanovna.

“She suffocated, stopped at an old tree, took hold of a cold, wet branch with her hand and found out: it was maple . She planted him a long time ago, as a girl – a laughter, and now he was flying around, chilled, he had nowhere to go from this homeless, windy night.

The tree is perceived by Katerina Petrovna as alive. She identifies her state of weakness, loneliness, hopelessness with his: “There is nowhere to escape from this homeless, windy night.” In addition, every object in the house, the trees in the garden, with which Katerina Petrovna’s whole life is connected, are spiritualized by the author in order to emphasize the horror of loneliness old woman – the depths of her longing for her daughter.

“Manyusha, sniffing, took this letter to the post office, put it in the mailbox for a long time and looked inside – what is there? But nothing was visible inside – one tin emptiness

On the one hand, this phrase has a common meaning – the tin box is empty. But in the text the meaning deepens: emptiness – Nastya does not find time to write a long-awaited letter to her mother; tin emptiness – soullessness, unjustified cruelty of the daughter.

After analyzing the artistic details used by the author in the 1st part of the story, we came to the conclusion: the skill of K.G. Paustovsky’s use of detail is striking. With their help, the author creates a certain mood of the story, creates the image of a lonely old woman forgotten by her daughter, conveys the psychological state of the hero, expresses his attitude towards the depicted.

The second part of the story tells about Nastya’s life in Leningrad. Paustovsky himself thought it up, in “Notches on the Heart” this is not.

Important for understanding the image of Nastya are such details here. This is a mother’s letter , which Nastya, without reading, hid in her purse . She has not seen her mother for three years. Katerina Ivanovna never bothered her daughter with her reproaches, complaints, letters. But Nastya did not immediately read this only letter – news from the person closest to her, but after reading, ” I thought about the overcrowded trains, … the inevitable motherly tears, nothing rural days – and put the letter in a desk drawer .” Personal peace for Nastya is more important than maternal loneliness.

Another important detail is Nastya’s cold eyes . And the eyes are the mirror of the soul. It means that her soul is cold and callous.

A great impression on me as a reader is made in the story by a detail that, in my opinion, can be called a discovery of Paustovsky. These are boring Gogol’s eyes and a thin sclerotic vein at the temple . Nastya felt the mocking look of Gogol’s sculpture on her. Why did the author choose Gogol and not Pushkin? I came to the conclusion: Gogol is a satirist who, according to Pushkin, possessed an amazing ability to immediately guess a person. “But the letter is in the purse, unopened,” Gogol’s piercing eyes seemed to say. – Oh, you, forty! Both the author and the great satirist see Nastya from the inside; Nastya’s kindness is ostentatious, not real. Gogol saw the essence of Nastya, her callous and cold soul. This is how the theme of the impact of art on a person sounds in the story.

In the third part of the story, we find ourselves at an exhibition of works by the young sculptor Timofeev, organized through the efforts of Nastya. And in this part of the story, details play an important role. Nastya receives a telegram : “Katya is dying. Tikhon.” The reaction to the telegram is important for us. It seemed that I had to cry, run, do something. And Nastya? She crumpled up the telegram (detail) and frowned . .. And it rushed from the pulpit. “Caring for a person becomes that wonderful reality that helps us grow and work… We owe this exhibition to our dear Anastasia Semyonovna…”

She is so far from her mother that she did not understand who the telegram was talking about. And Paustovsky emphasizes her falseness, heartlessness, when immediately after her thoughts: “What is Katya? Which Tikhon? It must not be for me, ” you read the words of the artist Pershin: “Today, caring for a person becomes that beautiful reality that helps us grow and work…”

Nastya committed a betrayal. Gogol again gives an assessment of her deed, he acts as a judge: “… Someone’s look, heavy, piercing, Nastya all the time felt on herself and was afraid to raise her head. She lifted her eyes with an effort and turned them away: Gogol looked at her, frowning. It seemed to Nastya that Gogol quietly said through clenched teeth: “Oh, you!” Paustovsky under this “Oh, you” meant an exclamation, a reproach. Gogol seems to see through Nastya: her falsehood, her betrayal. He, perhaps, even despises her for heartlessness, misunderstanding and selfishness.

Has Nastya’s conscience awakened? Art made Nastya come to her senses. (She got up quickly, dressed hastily, ran out into the street, remembered “my beloved” – she cried; she realized that no one loved her as much as this decrepit old woman abandoned by everyone; jumped up, ran to the railway station – just to be in time; there were no tickets ; felt that she would burst into tears. On the same evening, Nastya left) .

She no longer thinks about “ crowded trains, changing to a narrow-gauge railway, a shaking cart, a dried-up garden, inevitable motherly tears, about the viscous, unresolved boredom of country days ”, but immediately goes to the station, and then it seems to her that the train is barely dragging. Now everything that is connected with her mother is priceless to her … She cried in her mother’s room all night, feeling that “no one but Katerina Petrovna could remove from her irreparable guilt, unbearable burden.”

Indeed, the mother could calm Nastya, forgive her, but the mother is no longer there, and now she will have to experience this feeling of guilt for the rest of her life.


In the course of the study, we did a lot of work: we read and analyzed the literature on the topic, made a comparative analysis of the “Notches on the Heart” gava from the book “Golden Rose” and the story “Telegram”, analyzed the role of artistic details in the story. We have come to the following conclusions.

The work of Paustovsky touches on one of the most important moral problems – the problem of relations between children and parents. Do children always rush to help their parents living somewhere far away, do they always write letters to them, do they know how to take care of them, do they try to be affectionate with the elderly? Therefore, the story is perceived as a very sad story about a mother who is waiting in vain for the arrival of her daughter.

Craftsmanship K.G. Paustovsky’s use of detail is striking. With their help, the author creates a certain mood of the story, creates images of a lonely old woman, forgotten by her daughter, the image of Nastya, in the bustle of city life, in pursuit of false values u200bu200bwho has forgotten about her mother, conveys the psychological state of her characters, expresses her attitude to the depicted, her author’s position towards moral issues raised in the story

The story of K. G. Pustovsky “Telegram” in terms of its influence on the reader is one of the best works in Russian literature due to Paustovsky’s masterful use of artistic means of creating images and expressing the author’s position, thanks to the eternal universal problems skillfully raised in it.

I think that there is a deep subtext hidden in the name “Telegram”. In fact, the whole story is a telegram addressed to us. After all, a telegram is sent when they want to report something urgently important. “Be human! – reminds Paustovsky. – Repay good for good. Don’t be a kestrel.” Do not hide behind concern for humanity, when your closest people, and above all your mother, are waiting for your warmth, your attention, your kind word and look. Do not miss the time, so that later all your life you will not be tormented by remorse. Look into your mother’s eyes, maybe now she needs your attention and your support.


1. K. G. Paustovsky. Telegram//Litru.Ru Free electronic library

2. K.G. Paustovsky. Notches on the heart. Chapter from the book “Golden Rose//Litru.Ru Free Electronic Library.

3. Electronic bibliographic “To remember”: Konstantin Georgievich Paustovsky

4. Literature: reference materials: Book for students.-M.: Education, 1989.

5. Wikipedia: Artistic detail article

6. T.T. Levashova. Until it’s too late // Literature at school. -1996, No. 6

7.N.I.gusakova. For good, pay good / / Literature at school. -1996, No. 6

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