It determines the significance of social and cognitive (cognitive) factors in the process of language development of the child. According to this theory, language development occurs, on the one hand, on the basis of the interaction of a child with an adult, on the other hand, on the basis of the development of his objective cognitive activity. Thus, the genetically determined ability to think develops in a child on the basis of knowledge of the surrounding world, and the assimilation of a language is carried out in the process of using it and directly operating with language units. An important role is played by the self-regulation of speech activity, which is an arbitrary and conscious mental act. Another theory defines the fundamental prerequisites for language development, which include innate biological (thinking ability realized through the functioning of certain structures of the brain), social (involvement in joint activities with an adult) and cognitive factors (development of ideas about the surrounding reality in the process of its active and active knowledge).
The concept of “underdevelopment of speech” in speech therapy.
Speech underdevelopment implies a qualitatively lower level of formation of a particular speech function or speech system as a whole.
Under the general underdevelopment of speech in speech therapy is understood such a form of speech anomaly, in which the formation of all components of speech is impaired. The concept of “general underdevelopment of speech” implies the presence of symptoms of unformedness (or developmental delay) of all components of the speech system (its phonetic-phonemic side, lexical composition, grammatical structure). The general underdevelopment of speech can have a different mechanism and, accordingly, a different structure of the defect. It can be observed with alalia, dysarthria, etc.
Thus, the term “general underdevelopment of speech” characterizes only the symptomological level of impaired speech activity. In most cases, with this violation, it is possible not so much underdevelopment as a systemic speech disorder.
Diagnostic scale for assessing the stages of preverbal and initial verbal development (L.T. Zhurba, E.M. Mastyukova)
(E.M. Mastyukova, 1981)
|Age, months||Key indicators of preverbal and verbal development|
|The reaction of concentration on verbal communication with the child|
|Smile when talking|
|Revitalization complex when communicating with an adult, cooing|
|Differentiation of the animation complex, laughter|
|Sound direction differentiation, melodious hum|
|Readiness for joint play activities, orientation to the bell – evoked reaction|
|Reaction to an unfamiliar face, repetition of the same syllables ba-ba. Yes Yes. pa-pa, ma-ma , etc.|
|Gesture communication, patty game|
|Situational understanding of addressed speech, subject-effective communication with an adult, the use of 1-2 “babble words” that are understandable when correlated with the situation|
|Use of 3 “babble words” with correlation|
|Use of 3-4 “babble words” with correlation; understanding a simple instruction supplemented by a gesture|
|Vocabulary increases to 6 words, the child understands a simple instruction without a gesture|
|Shows one of the body parts, vocabulary 7-20 words|
|Shows 3 parts of the body, uses a phrase of 2 words, vocabulary – 20 words|
|Shows 5 body parts, has a vocabulary of at least 50 words; understands two-step instructions, inadequately uses pronouns I, you, me’, builds sentences from 2 words|
|Adequately uses the pronouns I , you, me, repeats two numbers in the correct sequence, has the concept of “one”|
|Vocabulary of 250 words, uses a 3 word sentence, mastered the plural of nouns and verbs. The child says his name, gender and age, understands the meaning of simple prepositions; performs tasks such as “Put the cube under the cup”, “Put the cube in the box”|
When determining the age limits for the appearance of a particular phenomenon, the extreme boundary is indicated when it should be formed in all normal children.
Examination of children is carried out in dynamics Children who are persistently lagging behind by one age period are at risk. A child who does not use phrasal speech by 30 months must be consulted by a doctor (child neuropathologist or neuropsychiatrist) and a speech therapist