Classification of innovations (innovations).

Topic 2 Innovation as an object of innovation management

1 Innovation as an economic category: concept and essence

2. Classification of innovations

3. Innovation process, its stages, elements and types.

Innovation as an economic category: concept and essence

Definition “innovation is a special cultural value, tangible or intangible, which at a given time and in a given place is perceived by people as new.

Schumpeter defined innovation as:

– new, i.e. a good that is still unknown in the sphere of consumption or a new quality of a known good;

– a new, more efficient method of production;

– discovery of new regularities in the sale of well-known products;

– discovery of new sources of raw materials or production;

– the organization of production, leading to a breakthrough of some monopoly established in it.

An innovation is a formalized result of fundamental, applied research, development or experimental work in any field of activity to increase its effectiveness.

Innovations can take the form of discoveries, inventions, patents, trademarks, rational proposals, documentation for a new or improved product, know-how.

Innovation (lat. novation – change, update) is an innovation that did not exist before. In accordance with civil law, novation means an agreement between the parties to replace one obligation they have concluded with another, i.e., this result is novation.

The term “innovation” and “innovation” are synonyms.

Innovation (innovation ) is the replacement of an old object with a new one.

The following definition of innovation can be given.

Innovation is a materialized result obtained from capital investment in new equipment or technology, in new forms of organization of labor production, service and management, including new forms of control, accounting, planning methods, analysis techniques.

Innovation properties:

– novelty. Novelty is a set of properties that characterize the radical changes in an object (product, service, technique, technology) and give the right to be called new. Novelty is a property that is valid only for a certain period (for example, the novelty of a product is limited by the onset of its obsolescence (wear and tear).

– industrial applicability (economic feasibility) characterizes the materialization of inventions and scientific and technical developments into new technically advanced types of industrial products, means and objects of labor, technologies and methods of organizing production .;

– commercial feasibility (meet the needs of consumers).

Innovation has three functions:

1) reproductive;

2) investment;

3) stimulating.

Reproductive function means that innovation is an important source of financing for expanded reproduction.

The investment function of an innovation means using the profits from the innovation to invest. The profit received from the implementation of innovations can be used in various ways, including as capital, which can be used to finance both all investments and specifically new types of innovations.

the content of the stimulating function of innovation is that the entrepreneur’s profit through the implementation of innovation directly corresponds to the target function of any commercial economic entity. This coincidence serves as an incentive for the entrepreneur to new innovations.

Allocate the following sources of innovation.

1. An unexpected event, which may be a sudden success, an unforeseen failure.

2. The discrepancy between reality, such as it is, and its reflection in the opinions and assessments of people.

3. Changing the needs of the production process.

4. Changes in the structure of the industry or market.

5. Demographic changes.

6. Changes in perception and values.

7. New knowledge, scientific and non-scientific.

The invention is understood as new devices, mechanisms, tools, other devices created by man.

A discovery is the result of obtaining previously unknown data or observing a previously unknown natural phenomenon.

Classification of innovations (innovations).

The classification of innovations provides for the distribution of innovations into specific groups according to certain characteristics in order to achieve the goal. The classification of innovations allows

1) clearly define the place of each innovation in the innovation system

2) highlight the distinctive characteristics of this innovation for the effective use of certain innovation management techniques;

2) rationally organize the innovation process;

3) to carry out the choice of an innovation strategy depending on the type of innovation;

4) to design economic mechanisms and organizational forms of innovative activity;

5) determine the position of a particular innovation by the forms of its implementation and promotion to the market.

P.N. Zavlin and A.V. Vasiliev propose a classification of innovations based on seven classification features: scope, stages of scientific and technical progress, degree of intensity, pace of innovation, scale of innovation, effectiveness, efficiency of innovation.

V.V. Gorshkov and E.A. Kretova use two features as the basis of the classification scheme of innovations: structural characteristics and targeted changes. From the position of structural characteristics, innovations are divided into three groups :

•innovations “at the entrance” to the enterprise;

• innovations “at the exit” from the enterprise;

• innovation of the structure of the enterprise as a system that includes individual elements and interconnections between them.

The Oslo Manual notes that there are two types of technological innovation:

• grocery;

• process. (technological)

Product innovation covers the introduction of new or improved products. Therefore, product innovations are divided into two types:

1) basic grocery:

2) improving food.

Process innovation is the development of new forms and methods of organizing production in the production of new products. This means that the release of new products can be organized using existing technology, equipment, energy resources and using traditional methods of organizing production and management .

There are a number of classifications of innovations in the literature. For example, A.I. Prigozhin offers a typology of innovations according to 9 features:

No. p / p Classification sign Types of innovation
By type of innovation Material and technical, economic. organizational and managerial, legal, pedagogical.
By innovative potential Radical (basic) Improving (modified) Combinatorial (innovations with predictable risk)
By the principle of relation to his predecessor Substitutes involve the complete replacement of an obsolete product with a new one and thereby ensuring a more efficient performance of the relevant functions; Cancelers, which exclude the performance of any operation or the release of any product, but do not imply anything in return: Reversible, which imply a return to some initial state, cases of non-compliance of innovation with new conditions of use Discovery, which create tools or products that have no comparable analogues or functional predecessors.
By scope of application Point, system, strategic
By efficiency Production efficiency, management efficiency, improvement of working conditions
For social impact Causing social costs, new types of monotonous work, harmful working conditions.
According to the peculiarities of the mechanism of its existence Single (for one object), diffuse (for many objects), completed and incomplete, successful and unsuccessful
According to the features of the innovation process Intra-organizational, when the developer, designer, manufacturer, user, organizer of innovation is in the same structure. Interorganizational when all three roles are distributed among organizations specializing in the implementation of individual stages of the process.
According to the sources of the initiative Direct social order As a result of the invention

From the point of view of the impact on the achievement of the economic goals of the organization, material and technical innovations include:

Product innovation

Innovation-processes

In terms of innovation potential:

– radical (basic) innovations,

– improving (modified)

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