Table of contents.
1. Table of contents. 2
2. Introduction. 3
3. Chapter I. Historical background 4
1) The story of the birdhouse 4
2) Types of birdhouse 4
3) Appointment of birdhouses 4
4) Information about the future inhabitant of birdhouse 5
4. Chapter II. The process of making a birdhouse 6
1) Project work 6
2) Economic calculations 6
3) Manufacturing steps 7
4) Technological map 8
5. Conclusion 9
6. List of references. ten
7. Application. eleven
In the spring, I noticed that many starlings arrive, but in the summer they can be seen very rarely. “Why are starlings not visible in summer?”. There are very few places for them to live in the village. The decision suggested itself – you need to help the birds, which means helping yourself.
The object of my project was a birdhouse for birds.
Subject of study : making a birdhouse.
Purpose of the study : to revive the tradition of making birdhouses at school and at home – one of the ways to preserve the number of starlings in the gardens and parks of our village.
– get acquainted with the history of the emergence of birdhouses;
– get acquainted with different types of birdhouses;
– to study the features of making birdhouses for starlings;
– build a birdhouse for a starling with your own hands.
-theoretical: study of sources of information.
c) generalization and conclusions.
Hypothesis : making the largest number of birdhouses for starlings, one of the ways to preserve the number of starlings in the village.
The estimated value of the work lies in the fact that this project is aimed at the development of labor creativity and environmental culture.
Chapter I. Historical background.
The history of the birdhouse.
We started by deciding to find out how birdhouses appeared. We found this information on the Internet.
The first massive human attempts to build and provide housing for birds were made in the last millennium in India. There is a written mention of birdhouses in the “Book for Hunters” of 1774 by Vasily Levshin: “And in the Crimea, Little Russia and in many places in Russia, starlings are found in the yards under the fences ( In peasant huts: the lower, hanging edge of the roof, as well as a beam supporting the lower the edge of the roof Swallow’s nest is under the jam ) , other owners make purpose bundles for them from birch bark, where they nest. Such courtyard starlings amuse the human ear with a pleasant whistle.
In Russia, they have always loved small birds that settled next to human habitation, considered them God’s creatures and good messengers. But the custom of building dwellings for birds was established among us only about three hundred years ago.
The classic well-known birdhouse is the birdhouse. His homeland is Western Europe. The fashion for birdhouses came to Russia with Peter the Great. The stern sovereign loved pleasant little things and funny little things. Having seen birdhouses during his travels in Europe, he introduced this tradition in his homeland.
Types of birdhouses.
Over the entire history of the existence of birdhouses, people have created more than fifty types of bird houses. These types of birdhouses differ depending on the device and placement. So, there are open and ground nesting places, ordinary and combined birdhouses, nest boxes (logs hollowed out from the inside), barrels (houses with convex walls), sheds (houses with stacked walls and hipped roofs). In addition, they are often divided into groups according to the name of the residents: birdhouses, titmouses, flycatchers, wagtails and others. All these bird dwellings differ in size, area, depth, and some features characteristic of a particular breed of birds. But all of them are artificial nesting sites for small birds, mostly nesting in hollows.
Appointment of birdhouses
Birdhouses and feeders can be installed for several purposes:
– attracting birds to observe their nesting for research purposes or just for fun;
– attraction of birds for the purpose of destruction of agricultural wreckers;
– education of love for nature and work in children.
4. Information about the future inhabitant of the birdhouse .
From the encyclopedia, we learned interesting facts about the life of starlings.
The starling is a small bird. Weight up to 75 g. Black with a metallic sheen, brown wings and tail. In autumn, the whole is covered with white spots. Scream – sharp, creaking. The starling sings, imitating the songs of other birds and various other sounds – the creak of a door, the mewing of cats, the croaking of frogs. In captivity, starlings are easily trained to pronounce words, and even whole sentences.
The starling prefers to settle next to a person in birdhouses and hollows. The nest is built by both birds from soft grass and feathers. The female lays 5-8 blue eggs. Parents incubate in turns for about two weeks. For another two and a half weeks, the chicks remain in the nest until departure.
Starlings are the protectors of gardens and orchards.
A starling brood can eat about 1000 May beetles and their larvae in 5 days, not counting the huge number of caterpillars and slugs.
Chapter II. The process of making a birdhouse.
• Not planed dry boards, preferably hardwood (birch, aspen, alder, etc.). It is impossible to use compressed wood (chipboard, fiberboard, etc.), it is toxic and short-lived.
• Nails 4-4.5 cm long.
• Odorless gray or red paint.
• Wood saw.
• A hammer.
• Drill with feather drill.
• Narrow chisel.
• Pencil and ruler.
• Boards must be at least 2 cm thick so that the walls retain heat well.
• Optimum internal size: square bottom 10-15 cm. Natural hollow 12×12 cm, so be guided by these dimensions.
• Notch diameter (hole) 4.5-5 cm.
• The distance from the notch to the bottom is 15-20 cm.
• Birdhouse height 30-35 cm.
• It is better to make a tap hole cylindrical rather than rectangular.
• The design should not injure the birds – to care for the birdhouse, make the roof removable.
• A perch is optional, starlings don’t need one.
• The inner walls must not be planed – because they are smooth. surface is very difficult to get out. If the boards are smooth, then before assembling on the front wall with a chisel, apply horizontal notches.
• It is better not to paint the birdhouse, the smell and bright color scare away birds, but if you really want to, then paint it with gray or red odorless paint.
The top canopy should protrude at least 5 cm to protect the entrance from bad weather.
2. Economic calculations .
|Cost item||Cost, rub.)||Quantity (piece)||Total rubles|
|Plywood 10 mm.||1 PC.|
|Plywood 0.5 mm.||1 PC.|
|Birch dowels||10 pieces.|
|Ice cream sticks||60 pcs.|
|Wood saw||depreciation||1 PC.||depreciation|
We need to make 5 parts of the following sizes:
– from plywood 10 mm – parts 40 cm long, 23 cm wide – 2 pieces (right and left slopes of the cover).
– from 10 mm plywood we cut out 2 squares for the back and front walls of the birdhouse measuring 40 by 40 cm.
-from 5 mm plywood we cut out one square for the floor and the birdhouse platform measuring 45 by 45 cm.
1. Using a square and a pencil, we measure the part of the birdhouse.
2. Then we saw off the part using a jigsaw.
The marking and sawing off of the parts must be done sequentially so that the paired parts are the same size.
Birdhouse assembly order:
1. We fasten the front wall to both sides of the roof slopes of the birdhouse.
2. Similarly, we fasten the back wall to both sides of the roof slopes of the birdhouse.
3. We saw birch dowels along and across into circles.
4. We glue round blanks around the perimeter of the roof and continue horizontally.
5. We paste a decorative covering from a broom on the roof.
6. We connect the birdhouse and the platform to each other.
7. We drill a flyer.
8. We install posts for the front garden.
9. We glue the veins for the picket fence.
10. Then glue the fence to the veins.
11. To make a bird feeder, we glue two semicircles with ice cream sticks.
12. We apply the drawing to the area in front of the birdhouse.
13. We decorate the product with tree branches.
14. We cover the entire product with varnish.
Work sequence Tools and fixtures:
1. The choice of material – tape measure.
2. Material marking – pencil, square, tape measure.
3. We cut out according to the markup – a jigsaw.
4. Connecting the parts of the birdhouse – a screwdriver, tees.
5. Sawing dowels – a hacksaw, a square, a pencil.
6. Cleaning the edges of the surface – a file, sandpaper.
7. Drilling the flyer – drill.
8. Gluing the decorative roof covering, logs and front garden – glue, brush.
9. Coating all surfaces with a water-repellent base – varnish, brush.
Now the arriving spring guests will have their own home. We hope that dad and I helped the first heralds of spring to settle in a new place. Year after year, the number of such dwellings should increase. Starlings are small feathered orderlies, they provide invaluable assistance to gardeners.
Application No. 1.