Chapter 2. The Semiotic Character of Logic

Chapter 1. Subject and Method of Logic

3.5. If Peter goes to Moscow, then Ivan will go to Samara. Peter will go to Moscow or St. Petersburg. If Peter goes to St. Petersburg, then Anna will stay in Arkhangelsk. Consequently, Ivan will go to Samara or Saratov.

4. Prepare a five-page presentation (page size
tsy A 4, 14 font, 1.5 spacing), giving an answer to one of the
day questions.

4.1. Does artificial intelligence need logic?

4.2. Man without logic: fantasy or reality of the present?

4.3. Ancient Greek sophists: intellectual swindlers or professional logicians?

5. Try to analyze ancient Greek sophisms.
What do you think the effect of persuasion is based on?

5.1. Do you know what I want to ask you now?

“Don’t you know that telling a lie is bad?”

-Of course I know…

“But that’s exactly what I wanted to ask you, and you said you didn’t know; therefore, you know what you do not know.

5.2. Whom they try to make wise, they try to make that
kim, which he is not, and therefore want him to be
ceased to be what he is, i.e., so that he perishes.

Chapter 2. The Semiotic Character of Logic

The concept of a sign. Types of signs

Any reasoning can be represented as a chain of signs. What is a sign?

A sign is a material object, which in the process of thinking and communicating people replace another object.

There are three types of signs according to the nature of their relationship to the objects they designate:

iconic signs (copy signs) — signs, meanings
which are completely determined by the denoted
subject. Examples of iconic signs: photo
fii, pictures, fingerprints;

signs-symbols – signs that are not physically connected in any way
with designated items. Their values are set
yut mainly by conditional agreement. Concerning
they receive the status of a symbol and universal
regulations. Examples of signs-symbols: most words
natural language, road signs;

index signs – signs, the meanings of which are completely
determines the context of their use. Examples of
co-indices: pronouns, some adverbs (“here”,
“now”, “tomorrow”), the position of the weather vane, footprints in the snow.

Types of signs are linguistic signs. They can be either symbol signs or index signs. Due to the fact that reasoning, as a rule, is expressed using language (natural or artificial), only linguistic signs are studied in logic. Other types of signs do not fall within the scope of its study.

Semiotics as a science about signs

Semiotics is a science that studies signs and sign processes.

Chapter 2. The Semiotic Character of Logic

This is a young scientific discipline. It was formed in the 20th century, although iconic approaches to the study of certain phenomena and processes can be found in the works of ancient and medieval scientists.

Its founders are the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and the American philosophers Charles Pierce (1839-1914) and Charles Morris (1901-1978). Ferdinand de Saussure made an attempt to consider natural languages as sign systems within the framework of a new scientific discipline, which he called semiology 1 . Charles Pierce introduced the term semiotics into scientific literature 2 . Charles Morris in 1938 published The Foundations of the Theory of Signs, which became the first systematic exposition of semiotics as a science 3 .

Semiotics at the present stage of its development is an interdisciplinary science. It lacks a well-defined subject of study. Any phenomenon or process, considered from the point of view of their symbolic embodiment, can become the subject of analysis of this science. In this regard, in our time, research is being carried out within the framework of legal semiotics, semiotics of medicine, semiotics of cinema, semiotics of music, psychoanalytic semiotics. All these sections are classified as descriptive semiotics.

Descriptive semiotics is a semiotics that studies specific sign systems.

In addition to descriptive semiotics, theoretical semiotics is also distinguished.

Theoretical semiotics is a semiotics that studies the general properties and relations inherent in any sign systems, regardless of their material embodiment.

Theoretical semiotics is primarily interested in the general principles of construction of any sign systems, as well as the general principles of their emergence and functioning.

Theoretical semiotics includes logical semiotics, which deals with the analysis of artificial languages in various aspects of their functioning.

1 Saussure, de F. A course in general linguistics: per. from French / F. de Sos
sur. – 3rd ed. – M. : URSS, 2006.

2 Pierce, C.S. From Elements of Logic. Grammatica speculative /
Ch. S. Pierce // Semiotics: Anthology / comp. Yu. S. Stepanov. – 2nd ed.,
correct and additional – M .: Academic prospectus, Yekaterinburg : Business book
ha, 2001. – S. 165-226.

3 Morris, C. W. Foundations of the Theory of Signs / C. W. Morris // Semioti
ka: Anthology / comp. Yu. S. Stepanov. — 2nd ed., corrected. and additional — M.: Aka
Demichsky prospect, Yekaterinburg: Business book, 2001. – S. 45-97.

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