Chapter 1 Social work in Russia

Federal state budget educational

Higher Education Institution

“RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
AND PUBLIC SERVICE

UNDER THE PRESIDENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION”

NORTHWESTERN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

Faculty of Social Technologies

Specialty / field of study: 39.03.02 “Social work”

Educational program: “Social work”

COURSE WORK

on the topic:

“The history of social work in Russia: the main stages of formation and development”

Completed:

Group student 3-17-11

distance learning

_____________ Zainullin A.I.

(signature)

Checked:

Position, academic degree,

academic title: Lecturer of the Department of SO and ST

_______________ Efimov A.M.

(signature)

Saint Petersburg 2018

Table of contents

Introduction 3

Chapter 1 Social work in Russia

1.1 History of social work as a scientific and academic discipline 5

1.2 Basic concepts of the history of social work 7

1.3 Categories and patterns of social work 14

1.4 History of social work in Russia 18

Chapter 2 The main stages of development and formation of social work in Russia 20

2.1 Milestones in the development of aid and

mutual aid in Russia 21

2.2 Social assistance and support of the population in Russia in the 90s

years 26 Conclusion 28

References 29

Introduction

For many centuries, traditions of mercy and charity developed in Russia. Social work cannot be formed without relying on these traditions. In modern conditions, its formation as a special profession is caused not only by the increased needs of the population for social support, but also by a change in the content of these needs. In the conditions of Russia’s transition to market economic relations, when the situation of the main part of the population has deteriorated sharply, the crisis has deepened in all spheres of life, social work is becoming more individualized, due to deep personal interests in solving social problems. It is not possible to cope with these problems only by the forces of state structures. That is why even today it is important to develop charitable social formations that help improve the situation of working groups of the population.

This course work is devoted to the study of the history of social work.

The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that the study of the experience gained by charitable Russia will help the student to expand and deepen his humanitarian knowledge, restore and put into practice the lost or forgotten national traditions of Russian social assistance. And so we chose the topic of the course work: “The history of social work in Russia: the main stages of formation and development.”

The object of study of the course work is the content of the history of social work in Russia.

The subject is the main stages of development and formation of social work in Russia.

The purpose of this work is to explore and study the concepts and categories of social work, to reveal the main stages in the development and formation of social work in Russia.

Objectives of the course work:

1. Study the scientific literature on the topic of the term paper;

2. Consider the history of social work as a scientific discipline

3. Understand the basic concepts of social work;

4. Explore the categories and patterns of social work;

5. Determine the main stages in the development of social work in Russia;

6. Make generalizations and conclusions.

Research methods:

1. Literature analysis.

2. Comparison, generalization, conclusions.

Theoretical significance:

1. Systematization and generalization on the topic under study.

2. The material can be used by students in preparation for lessons.

Chapter 1 Social work in Russia

In its most general form, social work is a type of activity of people and organizations to provide assistance to various segments of the population. The paradigm of this assistance is very broad. Many people who are at different stages and in different situations of their lives need help: a child and an elderly person, a sick and disabled person, a pensioner who receives a small pension, the unemployed, a beggar, a tramp, etc. Very wide, and the range of assistance: person – person; community – to a person; an adult – a child, an orphan; healthy – sick; social assistance service – to the unemployed, pensioner, large family, etc.

At the same time, social work is not limited to achieving practical goals, it carries a general civilizational purpose, namely: maintaining and ensuring social peace and balance in society, preventing social conflicts, and neutralizing destabilizing factors. It is from this point of view that social work, which acts as a social shock absorber, should be viewed as a whole. [7; P.480]

1.1 History of social work as a scientific and academic discipline

Social work as a science studies social phenomena and processes, therefore, it is basically a social (social science). At the same time, it is connected with both technical and, especially, natural sciences (physiology, psychology, ecology), which emphasizes its integrative nature. The research carried out within the framework of the theory of social work is often interdisciplinary in nature in terms of their relationship with the social and natural sciences.

Thus, it can be argued that the theory of social work is a social and humanitarian science in content, interdisciplinary and integrative in nature.

Social work is a relatively new area of scientific and practical activity for our country, and many of its theoretical aspects remain debatable. This concerns, in particular, the determination of the scientific status of social work.

Most researchers note that social work is predominantly applied in nature. At the same time, it also develops serious theoretical problems.

It is the applied nature of the theory of social work, the organic inclusion of facts and data from specific practical experience in it, that distinguishes it from the fundamental sciences, but does not oppose them. If the task of the fundamental sciences is the knowledge of the laws operating in nature, society, thinking, regardless of their possible practical use, then the task of the applied sciences is the application of the results of the fundamental sciences to solve cognitive and socio-practical problems. A close connection with life, the specific conditions of life of various groups and strata of the population is an indispensable condition for increasing the applied significance of scientific research in the field of social work.

The most important structural components of the scientific theory of social work are:

the object of science research;

· the subject of science and the transformation of reality;

· conceptual and categorical apparatus;

regularities and principles of social work;

· methods and principles of research organization;

functions of scientific theory.

The object and subject of social work, on the one hand, are determined by the goals of practical social work, and on the other hand, they affect the boundaries and content of the theory and practice of social work.

Having outlined the range of problems that make up the subject field of social work, we can conclude that the theory of social work is the science of the patterns and principles of functioning, development and regulation of specific social processes, their dynamics under the influence of psychological, pedagogical and managerial factors in the protection of civil rights and freedoms of the individual in society.

1.2 Basic concepts of social work theory

All the variety of types of social interactions and the social relations that develop on their basis in social work are concentrated on solving social problems declared by the client or discovered by the specialist himself.

In a broad sense , social problems are understood as all social phenomena associated with the behavior of people in society, both within the norm and beyond it. Usually, the appearance of problems is associated with the functioning of social systems and initially does not cause anxiety and discomfort in people.

In a narrower sense, the problem is spoken of, revealing the destruction of stable social ties, when its development leads to tension and conflict. In this case, to identify social problems, the objective state of affairs is compared with the norm. Consequently, with any approach, problems are part of social processes, their content is social in nature, and the form of manifestation is personal.

Since problems arise at different levels of reality, including in global society, it is customary to single out social problems at the macro level of social activity . They are of the broadest, universal nature and require concerted action on the scale of the world community for their solution (for example, the problem of the planet’s environmental security). Some of these problems are solved by the state in line with social policy, which is an important aspect of social work.

At the micro level, problems are identified that arise in various subsystems of the socio-ecological sphere within a particular society. It is possible to identify the main groups of social problems faced by social work specialists – socio-administrative, socio-economic, socio-ecological, social, social, medical, socio-psychological, socio-legal, socio-pedagogical, etc. At the same time, problems arising in one of the areas inevitably affect other spheres of human life, therefore, in order to identify them and optimally solve them, a social worker needs to involve the efforts of social groups, organizations and professionals engaged in transformative activities in a particular subsystem of society.

In the theory of social work, special attention is paid to social problems at the micro level of activity. We can formulate the following definition of a problem that is formed at the individual level:

A social problem is a contradiction perceived by the subject of activity as a significant discrepancy between the purpose of this activity and its result.

In this case, the problem arises due to the absence or lack of means for the individual to achieve the goal, as a result of which one or another of his needs is not satisfied. Accordingly, there is a need to find new ways and means of activity. It is important to note that a social problem has an objective-subjective nature – before becoming a problem, a social contradiction must pass through the consciousness of the subject, so three main elements should be distinguished in it:

people who assess the situation as problematic;

the social conditions in which the problem arose;

activities associated with the emergence, understanding and resolution of the problem.

In social work, a person is also considered in a problem when society, social conditions form the characteristics of his life (for example, the problem of a low standard of living for older people); and the problem in a person, when the values, ideas and behavior of the individual determine the characteristics of the group and society.

A specific state of a social problem is described through the concept of a social situation . Social situations develop as a result of changes in the characteristics of the social environment and the personality that perceives these features and interprets them in a peculiar way, therefore it is important to distinguish between types of social situations, to study the specifics of human behavior in them, the mechanisms of their perception by a person, the impact of situations on society in order to be able to find the best ways further social movement. In science, social situations are considered from the point of view of a situational approach (L.S. Vygotsky, B.F. Lomov, L.I. Antsiferova, Yu.N. Emelyanov, T.M. Dridze and others), aimed at analyzing social life as a series of discrete and interconnected social situations, a part of which is a person with his activity.

A difficult life situation is a situation that objectively violates a person’s social ties with his environment and the conditions of normal life, and is subjectively perceived by him as “difficult”, as a result of which he may need support and assistance from social services to solve his problem .

Difficult life situations in social work can be classified based on a number of criteria. So, allocate:

according to the characteristics of the subject – individual, group, family and other situations;

· according to the age criterion – situations of children, adolescents, youth and other age;

By psychological reaction to the situation – situations with an adequate, mobilizing reaction and with an inadequate, demobilizing reaction;

· according to the level of adaptation to the situation – situations with active, passive and opportunistic adaptation, etc.

A problematic life situation is always associated with the need to adapt to it in one way or another – this consists in successfully or unsuccessfully overcoming life difficulties with subsequent stabilization of the situation. As a result, both an active life position of a person, indicating his social responsibility, and the opposite in content – a passive, or dependent position, can be formed.

The term “client of social services” is often considered as a synonym for the concept of “object of social work”. However, the concept of “client” is narrower.

Clients in social work refer to an individual or group of people who seek help from social services for various social problems and receive this help. Social services in this case are not only a set of positions, functions and specific forms of activity, but also a system of interpersonal relationships, motivations, ideas about social work and clients.

The clientele of social work are primarily financially unsecured, socially vulnerable and marginalized strata of society.

The solution of their problems in the modern system of social work is carried out with the help of a differentiated approach to clients. It involves taking into account the peculiarities of the social position of a person, his needs, interests, traditions. Based on their analysis, adequate technologies and methods of social work are selected.

The key concept of the theory of social work, which characterizes the system of measures to solve the problems of society and the individual, provide social assistance and support to the client of social services, is the category of “social protection of the population”.

Social protection of the population in the broad sense of the word is a set of socio-economic measures carried out by the state and society and ensuring the provision of optimal living conditions, meeting needs, maintaining life support and the active existence of an individual and a social group, a set of measures that overcome the consequences of risk situations in the lives of citizens, a set of measures to ensure a state-guaranteed minimum level of material support for socially vulnerable segments of the population during the period of economic transformation and the associated decline in living standards.

Social protection is a function of the state and society to provide a person with potential life benefits, in accordance with his inalienable and expedient, from the standpoint of personality development, social rights – to work, to social and material security of the family, to the standard of living necessary to maintain his health and welfare, etc. Therefore, it is defined as the subject of the ideology and social policy of the state and the area of its practical activities.

The universal principles of social protection are humanism and social justice ; consistency and complexity in the activities of subjects of social protection; preventive assistance; targeting ; adaptability to social changes; multisubjectivity.

The system of social protection of the population is a set of measures aimed at meeting human needs. It interconnects legislative, socio-economic and organizational activities of the state and society. In addition, social protection is a system of social institutions and legal norms that ensure their activities.

The subjects of social protection, in addition to the state, are local governments, employers (entrepreneurs), public associations, citizens themselves, realizing their vitality and protecting vital interests. Consequently, the system of social protection also includes social self -defense – the protection by a person of his status, interests, rights, the development of his own ways of self-realization in society.

For the effective activity of subjects of social protection, it is necessary to have regulatory, economic, socio-psychological and organizational and technical means, i.e. resources that allow to carry out social protection of the population and guarantee the realization of the social rights of the individual. Consequently, the state social guarantees of observance of the principle of social justice should be based on the real provision of human rights to a minimum income, medical care, education, and protection of economic and moral interests.

If in a broad sense the concept of social protection is based on the concept of guarantees, self-realization and human rights, then in a narrow sense its definition is based on the concept of social risk. Thus, the system of social protection in Russia is primarily aimed at realizing the rights of socially vulnerable segments of the population, citizens who are in an extremely difficult situation due to the impact of social risks. The principles by which it is carried out are declarative, i.e. the provision of social services and other forms of assistance to citizens as they apply, and paternalism, i.e. state guardianship in relation to the least protected segments of the population.

The concept of social assistance is narrower than the concept of social protection.

The universal principles of this activity are:

· economic efficiency , defined as the optimal ratio of the volume of social expenditures and the amount of deductions for their financing;

social expediency as providing assistance only to those who are deprived of the ability to self-sufficiency;

· priority of the state beginnings of rendering of the help ;

social solidarity as a redistribution of funds in favor of the socially weak part of society;

individual social responsibility as the maximum activity of the individual in order to provide self-help;

universality as an equal opportunity to receive assistance for all citizens who are in a difficult life situation;

In the context of rapid social changes at the macro level of the social work system, in order to optimize its activities, effective social measures and the creation of qualitatively new programs that resolve and anticipate the problems of a particular society are required. The main goal of these efforts is to promote the normal functioning of the social sphere through the implementation of social policies.

Social policy is an obligatory element of the activity of society and the state, its most important area, where the desired state of the social sphere is constructed, which is its main object. This is an activity to manage the development of the social sphere and determine priority areas for its improvement in order to improve the living standards of all social groups. The concept of ” standard of living ” characterizes the structure of human needs and the possibility of meeting them on the basis of a system of indicators that indicate the norms of social security for working and non-working people, the level of social resources coming from public sources, etc.

The state, represented by the relevant authorities at the federal and regional levels, on the basis of the principle of social guarantees, is responsible for the growth of living standards and the social arrangement of citizens. Consequently, social policy demonstrates how the goals and objectives put forward by the basic social institutions in a specific period of time correlate with people’s ideas about the necessary level of their social security.

The sphere of social policy includes the distribution of income, goods, services, material and social conditions for the reproduction of the population. It is aimed at limiting the scale of absolute poverty, providing the needy with sources of livelihood, maintaining social health, and so on.

Accordingly, the result of an effective social policy is to provide more complete opportunities to meet the needs of members of society, maintain its stability, develop a social insurance system, activate factors that stimulate highly productive work, further develop the social service system, stimulate employment, and form an attitude towards the social responsibility of members of society for their social welfare, etc.

1.3 Categories and patterns of social work

Any humanitarian science, including the theory of social work, reflects the changeable, closely intertwined diverse social phenomena (for example, the interaction “man-man”, “man-environment”), generalizing and interpreting which, scientists put forward concepts – brief, but comprehensive definitions that can explain the features of a particular phenomenon that do not allow it to be interpreted in two ways.

A concept is a reflection in a generalized form of phenomena and events of reality, the connections between them by fixing their general and specific features and properties. If the concept suits the majority of researchers, becomes well-established, it is called a term . When a term becomes universal , it is a category , i.e. categories are the most important, key concepts.

In the theory of social work, a specific categorical-conceptual apparatus has developed, with the help of which the essence, content, patterns and trends of social work are revealed. But modern researchers of the problems of the theory of social work, when identifying groups of concepts and categories as the basis for classification, have in mind different criteria.

In order to streamline the diversity of categories of social work, structuring them, scientists most often distinguish the following groups of concepts and categories (E.I. Kholostova):

· own categories of social work: social worker, social work, social services, social protection, targeted social assistance; social worker, client, social services, welfare, etc.

Categories related to social work primarily , but also used by other branches of knowledge: social rehabilitation, psychosocial work, family conflict; social adaptation; social and medical services, social and legal services, etc.

categories that are not specific to social work , since the phenomena and processes they designate are studied by other sciences: social relations, social space, society, state, social stratification, social processes, society.

The theory reveals and describes the main trends, patterns of functioning of all components of social work. Social practice, in its essence, is multifaceted and integrative, and therefore the patterns of social work are presented as an ideally averaged reflection of the main trends in the functioning of the social assistance system. The existing experience allows us to formulate the laws of social work, they concentrate those conditions that contribute to the effectiveness of work.

The patterns of social work can be divided into:

Objective patterns – inherent in social work

as a process, in its essence, inevitably manifesting as soon as it arises in any form, regardless of the method, the content of the social worker’s activity (i.e., they reflect the connections between independent processes, systems, phenomena).

As objective patterns, there are patterns that reflect the dependence of the content of social work on the goals of the state’s social policy. The relationship between the level of development of social work and the level of social development of society is also logical.

· Subjective patterns – manifested depending on the activities, means undertaken by the social worker and the client (ie reflect the relationship between the individual components within the system).

As subjective patterns, there are patterns that reflect the dependence of the effectiveness of social work on the level of preparedness of a specialist; from the joint interest of the social worker and the client in solving the problem.

E.I. Kholostova, when isolating the patterns of social work, proceeds from the fact that in social work there are organizational and managerial relations and relations of interaction between a specialist and a client (the contact level of social work) , which allow us to highlight certain patterns inherent in management.

Among the various types of managerial relations that affect the structure of social work as a science, the following relations are distinguished:

subordination – communications between governing bodies, between individuals if they have service relations of subordination in the implementation of the general goal of managerial activity;

coordination – communication between participants of the management process that are not directly subordinate to each other in order to coordinate their actions in the course of implementing individual and common goals;

correlations – interactions and mutual influences.

For the administrative bodies of social protection of the state, regional and local levels, which are a set of institutionalized groups of specialists endowed with certain powers, rights and obligations, managerial relations are determined by the following patterns:

· the dependence of the effectiveness of social protection on the structural completeness of the system of management and functioning, and social service institutions;

· the dependence of the effectiveness of social protection and social services for the population on the social orientation of consciousness and the activities of the personnel corps of government bodies;

· the relationship between social work and the consistency of the immediate and long-term goals of social protection and social services, etc.

The effectiveness of achieving the goals of social work at the direct contact level depends on the following patterns:

joint interest of the social worker and the client in the final results of their interaction;

the integrity of the impact of a social work specialist on
client;

Compliance with the powers and responsibilities of a specialist in
social work, etc.

1.4 History of social work in Russia

The main factors in the formation of a new branch of knowledge for Russia were the decrees of the USSR State Labor Committee (1991) on the introduction of a new professional qualification – a social worker and the introduction of the same specialty in educational institutions in various forms of education. In the current conditions, scientific thought came to grips with the organization of the infrastructure of assistance, with practical methods of supporting those in need, educational problems of training specialists, and determining the scientific status of a new discipline.

Since 1992, research has begun on the history and theory of social work. Moreover, in modern works, either domestic or foreign work experience is considered. There is so little research on the history of social work in Russia that one might get the impression that it appeared only in the early 1990s. XX century, but in fact the history of social work in Russia has more than a thousand years. In the textbook “Fundamentals of Social Work” Pavlenok P.D. writes that “The treaty of 911 between Prince Igor and the Greeks, which contained moments now called social work, should be considered the beginning of it.” [17; P.44]

The real impetus for the development of charity in Russia was the adoption of Christianity in 988. “Excellent piety, diligence in the construction of churches and mercy towards the poor have won common love” to Ivan Kalita, Vladimir Volynsky, Georgy Dolgoruky, Andrei Bogolyubsky, Svyatoslav of Kyiv, Oleg, Vladimir Monomakh, Svyatopolk, Izyaslav, Yaroslav the Wise. The chronicle notes that “in 1209, Vsevolod’s first wife was Maria, glorious in piety and wisdom. She urged her sons to live in love, that civil strife destroys princes and the fatherland, exalted by the labors of their ancestors, advised them to be sober, friendly, and especially respect the elders. [4; P.118] The chronicler praises her for many charitable deeds. Nestor notes many noble deeds of the princes with the action of Christian teaching: humanity, faith in the power of good, conviction in the importance of philanthropy, helping one’s neighbor – were indisputable truths. [nine; P.124]

After the adoption of Christianity, churches and monasteries became the focus of social assistance.

The end of the era of poverty came during the reign of Peter I. On his initiative, hospitals, penal houses, maintenance and education of orphans and soldiers in monasteries were opened. The system of state charity in Russia took shape under Catherine II, who issued a decree in 1763 on the opening of an orphanage in Moscow, and then in St. Petersburg. And in 1773, orders of public charity were created in all provinces of Russia, dealing with issues of helping those in need. [5; P.117]

Period from 1861 to 1917 considered to be the heyday of Russian entrepreneurship. So it really was. “For the first time in the entire previous and subsequent history of Russia, independent people got the opportunity to develop freely, to realize all the business qualities inherent in them” [6; P.134]

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