RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
During the internship at JSC “Pinsk Meat Processing Plant” the following was studied:
1. change in the dynamics of QMAFAnM at all stages of the production of sausages;
The number of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. QMAFAnM includes various taxonomic groups of microorganisms – bacteria ( Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes ), yeasts, mold fungi. Their total number indicates the sanitary and hygienic state of the product, the degree of its contamination with microflora.
DEFINITION OF QMAFAnM
The method for determining QMAFAnM by inoculation into agar nutrient media is based on the inoculation of the product or its dilution into a nutrient medium, incubation of the inoculations, and counting of all grown colonies.
Add pro himself md!
EMISSION OF GROUND SAUSAGE BY MICROORGANISMS AT ALL STAGES OF PRODUCTION
Raw materials – must be fresh and obtained from healthy and well-fed animals;
Meat preparation – when cutting carcasses, deboning, trimming, the number of microorganisms in meat increases sharply, since all this is done manually;
Preparation of minced meat – seeding of minced meat can occur during mechanical operations (chopping meat on a top and cutter, processing minced meat in a mixing machine), from equipment, workers’ hands, containers, inventory, from indoor air, when adding bacon, starch and spices;
Filling the sausage casing with minced meat – when filling sausage sticks, microorganisms can enter from syringes. Another source of microbial contamination of minced meat can be the sausage casing itself;
Precipitation – an increase in temperature and an increase in the duration of precipitation can lead to a significant multiplication of microorganisms and an increase in the overall microbial load;
After molding, the product is not yet ready for use. It is delivered to the thermal department, where, depending on the type of product, it is subjected to one or another method of heat treatment. Roasting, boiling, smoking and drying of sausages is carried out in special chambers.
Roasting – at the same time, the natural intestinal membrane is compacted and becomes impermeable to microorganisms;
Boiling – by the end of the cooking process in the depths of the loaves, the temperature, depending on the type of sausages, reaches 68-75°C. Under this temperature regime, up to 90% or more of the microbes contained in raw sausages die;
Smoking and drying – the composition of the microflora after smoking and drying does not change. The total number of microorganisms is somewhat reduced, since some of the microbes that survived the cooking die off during additional processing.
Figure 1 – The dynamics of changes in QMAFAnM at all stages of the production of sausages – in Figure 1 you can clearly see how the dynamics of QMAFAnM changes.
At the initial stages of the production of sausages, there is a significant growth of microorganisms from 5 * 10 4 CFU / cm 3 to 2.8 * 10 5 CFU / cm 3 , since most of the stages are performed manually.
During heat treatment, the number of QMAFAnM decreases.
The decrease is influenced by factors such as: * temperature , from which, at the roasting stage, the natural intestinal membrane thickens and becomes impermeable to microorganisms (70-110 ° C). At the stage of cooking at a temperature = 71±1°С, coagulation of proteins occurs, as a result of which the entire vegetative form of the microflora dies; * components of the smoking mixture, which during smoking penetrate into the loaf, providing a bactericidal effect.
I have also studied:
change in the dynamics of QMAFAnM during storage of boiled meat sausages “Fat Man Lux” of the highest grade.
Table 1 – Dynamics of changes in QMAFAnM during storage of boiled meat sausages “Tolstyachok Lux” of the highest grade during the shelf life – Table 1 shows the change in the dynamics of microflora during the shelf life in the range from the 1st to the 20th day. Measurements were taken after 5 days. On the first day, the amount of QMAFAnM in March was 1.2*10 2 CFU/cm 3 . In April, it amounted to 2.3 * 10 2 CFU / cm 3 . On the 20th day, the following data were obtained: in March – 2.1 * 10 2 CFU / cm 3 , in April – 2.9 * 10 2 CFU / cm 3 .
At the same time, a clear growth of microorganisms is observed, but all the obtained values are within the normal range (1*10 3 CFU/cm 3 ).
Table 2 – Dynamics of changes in QMAFAnM during storage of boiled meat sausages “Tolstyachok Lux” of the highest grade after the expiration date – the second table shows the change in the dynamics of QMAFAnM after the expiration date in the interval from the 25th to the 40th day. Measurements were also taken after 5 days. On the 25th day, the number of microorganisms in March was 1.1*10 3 CFU/cm 3 , in April it was 1.2*10 3 CFU/cm 3 . On the 40th day, the data obtained were as follows: in March – 1.5*10 3 CFU/cm 3 , in April – 1.6*10 3 CFU/cm 3 .
Figure 2 – Dynamics of changes in QMAFAnM during storage of boiled meat sausages “Tolstyachok Lux” of the highest grade – Figure 2 clearly shows the change in the dynamics of microflora, presented as a comparison of average values during and at the end of the shelf life with the norm (1 * 10 3 CFU / cm 3 ). After the expiration date, the number of microorganisms in March was 1300±25 CFU/cm 3 and exceeded the norm by 50%. In April, the number of mesophilic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms amounted to 1400±24 CFU/cm 3 and exceeded the norm by 60%.