California Psychological Personality Inventory (CPI)

It was developed according to the MMPI principle in the late 60s by the American psychologist J. Gough (Gough H., 1960). The purpose of this questionnaire, as its creator himself points out, is “to anticipate what people will say or do in a certain situation, and also to predict what others will say about them” (Mergargee M., 1972, p. 2). Unlike MMPI, CPI is intended for healthy people and reveals not pathological, but rather socio-psychological characteristics of a person.

The questionnaire itself consists of 480 statements, to which the subject must answer “yes” or “no”. Most of the questions, 200 of which are from the MMPI, concern the subject’s typical behaviors, everyday feelings, opinions, and attitudes. The calculated answers are transferred to sheets with standard norms for 18 scales of the questionnaire, and a personality profile is built. The scales of the questionnaire during interpretation are combined, at the suggestion of the author, into four groups.

6 scales included in the first group measure balance, self-confidence and adequacy in interpersonal relationships. These are scales of dominance, the ability to acquire social status, sociality, sociability, self-acceptance and a sense of well-being.

The second group of scales reveals the maturity and socialization of the individual, his responsibility and interpersonal values. It also includes 6 scales: responsibility, achieved socialization, self-control, tolerance, favorable impression and commonness. The third class measures the potential for achievement and development of a person, his intellectual efficiency. Scales of achievement through conformity, achievement through upholding one’s independence, intellectual efficiency are included. The fourth grade includes three scales: psychological, flexibility and femininity.

Three of these scales—feelings of well-being, good impressions, and ordinaryness—determine the sincerity of responses to the questionnaire, although the results on them are also interpreted.

When factoring a questionnaire, five factors are usually distinguished, which in content do not coincide with the four groups of scales identified by the creator of the test. This, as well as the high correlation of the scales among themselves, indicates a noticeable redundancy of 18 indicators, which is a weak point of the questionnaire.

Despite its weaknesses (they are similar to the shortcomings of the MMPI), CPI is the best questionnaire of this type, helping to diagnose those personality traits that affect interpersonal relationships. The interpretation of the results is made in the language of common sense, and not in a special psychological “jargon”, which makes it easy to use the results in psychological practice. There are several well-prepared manuals on CPI, it has been translated into different languages, and extensive work is underway to improve and validate it (Gough G., 1969; Mergargee H., 1972). It is also possible to transfer answers on CPI to other scales, for example, an abbreviated version of MMPI, Edwards’ list of personal preferences, Taylor’s anxiety scale, and some others. With the help of CPI, good results were obtained in predicting criteria such as juvenile delinquency, academic performance in high school, and success in mastering many areas of professional activity.

Interpersonal relationships have a complex structure, they permeate different levels of personality organization. Therefore, it is unlikely that using one, even a well-designed test, one can fully reveal human relationships. One of the attempts to create a systemic battery for diagnosing an individual’s interpersonal relationships belongs to T. Leary and his collaborators (Leary T., 1958).

It includes three techniques for diagnosing interpersonal relationships in an individual at four levels. The results of all measurements are translated into the so-called discogram – a circle, which is made up of eight psychological tendencies (octant). They are oriented in a certain way with respect to the two main axes in interpersonal relationships. According to T. Leary, this is dominance – submission and friendliness – aggressiveness. Octants contain qualities characterized by the following eight psychological tendencies: 1) a tendency to leadership – authoritativeness – despotism; 2) self-confidence – self-confidence – narcissism; 3) exactingness – intransigence – cruelty; 4) skepticism – stubbornness – negativism; 5) compliance – meekness – passive obedience; 6) credulity – obedience – dependence; 7) kindness – lack of independence – excessive conformism; 8) responsiveness – disinterestedness – sacrifice.

The first level of personality – the level of public interpersonal behavior – is measured using 8 MMPI scales, and the results obtained are translated into 8 main discogram octants. The second level – the image of oneself and others – is measured by a specially created list of personal qualities, which consists of 128 adjectives. This list and a short description of the technique are given in the book, ed. G. V. Vasilchenko “General sexopathology” (M., 1977). The third level – the level of the unconscious and personal symbols – is measured by 10 TAT cards. The subject is asked to describe each picture in two sentences. The fourth level – the conscious ideal – is measured by filling in the same list of personality traits, the subject is asked to answer what he would like to be.

Thus, an assessment of the personality is obtained according to 8 main psychological tendencies at different levels of personality organization.

Despite the thoughtfulness of the battery of tests, it remains unclear how to correlate different levels with each other (especially the level of the unconscious and personal symbols), there is not enough data to standardize the entire battery of tests, to compare the results quantitatively. Therefore, it was not the battery of tests itself that became widespread, but a list of personal qualities that was widely used by Soviet psychologists. This technique itself can be filled in by an observer, in order to then be compared with the result of filling by the person himself.

Summarizing, we can say that one of the possible ways to diagnose interpersonal relationships lies in identifying those individual qualities and properties that affect the relationship itself. There are different verbal scales for identifying a particular property. As for a more general methodology, most authors agree that the best developed methodology for this area is the California Psychological Personality Inventory. It can be used in solving a wide variety of problems of both scientific research and psychological practice.

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