BUILDING A BUILDING PLAN
The construction of the floor plan is carried out in the following sequence:
1. Step back from the lower and left frames of the drawing by 80 – 90 mm and apply the extreme axes of the grid of the coordination axes of the supporting structures of the building in accordance with the task option. The axes should be made with thin dash-dotted lines and marked with marks in circles with a diameter of 8-12 mm on the left and lower sides of the building plan. Select the font size for designating the coordination axes by 1–2 numbers larger than the font size of the numbers. An example in fig. 2.
Figure 2. Placement of the axes of the building plan
2. Apply the contours of the external and internal main walls of the building and partitions. Rice. 3. Attach the walls to the axes according to the option. Show all structural elements that fall into the section with the main thick line. Contour lines that do not fall into the section plane should be drawn with a solid thin line. Do not hatch the walls in the section. Show the junction of the internal partitions to the external walls. An example of linking load-bearing walls to coordination axes and a partition to a load-bearing wall is shown in fig. 4.
Figure 3. An example of the image of the walls on the floor plan
Figure 4. Binding of walls and partitions
3. Draw window openings in the outer walls according to the dimensions indicated in fig. 5. All window openings should be made with a quarter, which should be placed on the outside of the window. Mark the filling of window openings to indicate from the outside of the building.
Figure 5. Image of windows on the floor plan
4. Draw doorways, taking into account the following points: the outer door should open only in the direction of exit from the building; the direction of opening of intra-apartment (interroom) doors should be chosen based on the convenience of operating the premises; doors leading from the apartments to the stairs should open into the interior of the apartment. The opening for the outer door is made with a quarter. Draw the door leaf on the plan with a thick solid line at an angle of 300. Indicate the mark of filling the doorways with a number placed in a circle with a diameter of 5 mm. An example in fig. 6.
Figure 6. Image of doors on the floor plan
5. Drawing the stairs in plan should be done after calculating and drawing the stairs in section (according to the obtained dimensions).
When executing the stairs on the plan, consider the following points:
• on the first floor, complete the basement flight of stairs and the lower flight of stairs going from the first to the second floor. Since the horizontal cutting plane passes at the level of window openings, the lower march is shown not in full, but with a break line.
• When making a plan for the second floor, it is necessary to show two complete flights of stairs going from the first to the second floor.
• Leave a gap of 100 mm between flights in stairwells.
• Show with an arrow the direction of climbing the flight of stairs.
An example of the execution of a ladder in the plan in fig. 7.
Figure 7. Image of flights of stairs on the floor plan
6. Arrange in the bathrooms and in the kitchen the necessary sanitary and electrical equipment, which is marked with the letters: B – bath, U – toilet bowl, M – sink, EP – electric oven, R – sink. Equipment dimensions are shown in fig. 8. The distance from the electric furnace to the walls should be at least 100mm in accordance with fire safety requirements.
Figure 8. Symbolic image of sanitary and electrical equipment
7. On the drawing of the building plan, put down the dimensions in mm. Apply dimensions in the form of closed chains, limited by serifs (at an angle of 45 0 ). Dimension lines should protrude beyond the extreme extension lines by 1-3 mm. Put the numbers above the dimension line. From the outside of the building, put down three lines (chains) of dimensions. Place the first dimension line at a distance of 15-25 mm from the outer contour of the building. Place the dimension lines between each other at a distance of 7-10 mm. On the first dimension line, indicate the dimensions of the openings and piers. On the second dimension line, put down the dimensions between the alignment axes of the supporting structures. On the third dimension line, put down the overall dimensions (between the axes of the outer walls of the building). An example of setting external dimensions in fig. 9. Inside the building plan, put down all the necessary dimensions in closed chains (the width and depth of each room, the thickness of the walls and partitions, the binding of the walls to the axes). An example of setting internal dimensions in fig. ten.
Figure 9. Requirement for drawing external dimensions on the floor plan
8. Put down the area of u200bu200bliving premises in the lower right corner of the room and underline with a solid line. Calculate the area with an accuracy of 0.01 m 2 . Corridor, loggia, toilet and kitchen are not living quarters. An example in fig. ten.
Figure 10. Requirement for drawing internal dimensions on the floor plan
9. Show on the plan the direction of the cutting plane. Take into account that the cutting plane must necessarily pass along the staircase along the march closest to the observer, as well as along window and door openings. If necessary, the incision must be made complex stepped. Sign the section, indicating the designation of the cutting plane in Arabic numerals (Section 1 – 1). An example of a section designation in fig. eleven.
Figure 11. Requirements for the design of the position of the cutting plane of the section
10. Sign the plan drawing, indicating the floor number. For example: 1st floor plan, 2nd floor plan. An example of drawing up a plan of a residential building in fig. 12.
Figure 12. An example of a floor plan design
CONSTRUCTION OF A BUILDING SECTION
The construction of a section of a residential building is performed in the following sequence:
1. Apply the coordination axes of the building passing through the load-bearing walls. Specify the marks of the axes according to the designations on the plan. The font size for designating the coordination axes and marks should be chosen one or two numbers larger than the font size of the dimensional numbers in the drawing. Put down the dimensions that determine the distance between the axes. An example in fig. thirteen.
Figure 13. The image of the axes in the section
2. Draw a horizontal line corresponding to the finished floor level of the first floor. This level is taken as the zero mark (±0.000). From this line, set aside the size of the floor height according to the assignment (the distance from the floor of the 1st floor to the floor of the 2nd floor) and draw a horizontal line, which will be the level of the finished floor of the second floor. Mark the bottom line of the floor of the 1st floor, setting aside 300 mm from the floor of the 2nd floor (floor thickness). Set aside the height of the room from the floor of the 2nd floor upwards and draw a horizontal line, which will be the bottom line of the floor level of the 2nd floor. On the example in fig. fourteen.
Figure 14. Section design
3. Run the contours of the outer and inner walls and partitions. Bindings of these elements to the alignment axes should be performed in accordance with the accepted thicknesses of these elements on the plan. Draw all structural elements that fall into the cutting plane with a thick main solid line, visible contour lines and doors located behind the cutting plane – with a thin main solid line. An example in fig. fifteen.
4. Mark the position of window and door openings in the outer wall. Consider the presence of quarters in window and door openings. Dimensions with an asterisk are for reference only and are not shown on the drawing . An example in fig. fifteen.
Figure 15. Section design
5. Draw the extensions of the eaves. Take the required dimensions in fig. 15. Design the outline of the roof in accordance with the task.
6. Draw a ladder. In this task, it is proposed to complete a two-flight staircase. Since the height of one march is ½ H of the floor, then to determine the position of the level of the landing between the first and second floors, you need to draw a horizontal line in the middle of the floor height. To calculate the stairs, take the height of the riser h = 140 mm for the option with H floor = 2.8 m , and for the option with H floor = 3 m, the height of the riser h is taken = 150 mm . This means that in one flight of stairs the number of risers is 10. Since the upper tread (the frieze step) coincides with the landing (see node 2 in Fig. 24), the number of treads in one march will be one less.
10 – 1 = 9 treads.
Tread length b = 310 mm for the option with H floor = 2.8 m , and for the option with H floor = 3 m tread height b = 300 mm . This means the length of the horizontal projection of the march (laying the march)
B u003d 9 x b .
Mark the stairs in accordance with Figure 16.
Figure 16. Sectional view of a flight of stairs
An example of a more detailed calculation of stairs for the H floor option = 3000 is shown in fig. 17.
Figure 17. An example of a detailed calculation of a flight of stairs
To perform a basement flight of stairs, it is required to calculate the required number of steps.
The calculation begins with determining the distance from the level of the basement area to the level of the area between the 1st and 2nd floors. To do this, add up the height of the door leaf (2100 mm), the size of the jumper (at least 150 mm), the height of the landing (150 mm) 2100 + 150 + 150 = 2400 mm. From this value we subtract the height of the flight of stairs 2400 – ½ N fl . The resulting number must be a multiple of the height of the riser h . For example, for a height H floor u003d 2800 mm , the height of the basement march u003d 2400 – 1400 u003d 1000 mm. Riser height for H floor = 2800 mm h=140mm on request. This means 1000 / 140 = 7, 14. The number of steps must be a multiple of h , so we take the number of risers = 8. The number of steps will be 1 less than 8-1 = 7. An example of the calculation is shown in fig. eighteen.
Figure 18. Requirements for calculating the number of steps of the basement march
Draw a flight of stairs that fell into the cutting plane of the section with a solid thick main line. March, located behind the cutting plane, draw a solid thin line); at the entrance, two windows should be placed one above the other, separated by a lintel. Run stair railings with a height of 950 mm.
7. Make the porch step 150 mm high, thus determining the ground level.
8. Design the basement of the building. The required dimensions are shown in fig. 27.
9. Put down the height marks of the levels of the finished floor of the floors, the ceiling of the upper floor, the landing, the ground level, the roof ridge. Mark the levels to the nearest third decimal place. Specify zero “mark without a sign; marks above zero – with a “+” sign, below zero – with a “-” sign. Outside the outline of the drawing, at a distance of 15-25 mm from the outer surfaces of the walls, measure the height of openings in walls and partitions, cutaway
10. Sign the section, indicating the designation of the cutting plane in accordance with the designation of the section line on the plan. An example of a cut in fig. nineteen.
Figure 19. An example of a cut design