Basic principles of information and communication technologies

Basic information and communication technologies

Teaching aid for students in the specialty
351400 “APPLIED INFORMATICS”

Kazan 2010

Recommended by the Department of Informatics and Media Technologies (protocol No. 6) and published by decision of the Council of the Faculty of Information and Document Communications dated March 23, 2010.

Compiled by:

cand. biol. Sciences, Assoc. O.I. Volkov , Art. teacher R.K. Kamaletdinov

Reviewers:

Doctor ped. sciences, prof. Department of Informatics and Media Technologies

T.I. Klyuchenko

Doctor of Physics and Mathematics sciences, prof., deputy. director of NIIMM them. N.G. Chebotareva M.G. Khramchenkov

Basic information and communication technologies. Educational and methodological manual for students in the specialty 351400 “Applied Informatics” authors: Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor Volkov Oleg Insanovich, Senior Lecturer Rafael Kashfievich Kamaletdinov. – Kazan: Kazan Publishing House. state University of Culture and Arts 2010 – 60 p.

Content

1. Introduction. Basic concepts and definitions of ICT
2. Basic principles of information and communication technologies
3. Multimedia technologies. Main approaches
3.1 Applications of multimedia
4. Artificial intelligence technologies 4.1 The results of the introduction of artificial intelligence 4.2 The main areas of research in artificial intelligence technologies
5. Geoinformation systems
6. CASE technology
7. Literature

Introduction

Basic concepts and definitions of ICT

The definition of ICT given in GOST R 52653-2006 [1] states that information and communication technology is information processes and methods of working with information, carried out using computer technology and telecommunications. It is logical to assume that any available information, created, accumulated and stored, must someday be transferred, and therefore provided with reliable and efficient sources of transmission, i.e. the transmission of information and the means providing it are an integral part of information. As, for example, the speech apparatus of a person, without which it would be extremely difficult to convey his thoughts – a product of brain activity. If the speech apparatus does not function for any reason, then the person is looking for other ways to transfer knowledge. For example, a special way of transmitting information has been developed for the deaf and dumb – a sign language in which hand movements denote letters, whole words and concepts.

Any modern ICT has a complex composition of components based on basic technological operations, specialized technologies and means of implementation. A technological process is a part of an information process that contains actions (physical, mechanical, etc.) to change the state of information. Basic technological operations are based on the use of standard models and tools and can be used as ICT components. These include the operations of extracting, transporting, processing, storing and presenting information.

The process of extracting information is associated with the transition from a real representation of the subject area to its description in the form of data or knowledge that reflect this representation.

In the process of transportation, information is transmitted over a distance for accelerated exchange and organization of quick access to it, using various conversion methods.

The process of information processing consists in obtaining some “information objects” from others by executing certain algorithms. It is one of the main operations performed on information, and the main means of increasing its volume and diversity.

The process of storing information is associated with the need for accumulation and long-term storage of data, ensuring their relevance, integrity, security and availability.

The process of presenting information is aimed at solving the problem of access to information in a user-friendly form.

ICT is inextricably linked with information and communication systems (ICS), which are its main environment. It may seem that these definitions are very similar to each other. In fact, ICT is a process consisting of clearly regulated rules for performing operations, actions, stages of varying degrees of complexity on data or knowledge stored in computers. The main goal of ICT is to obtain the information necessary for the user as a result of targeted actions for the processing of primary information.

ICS is an environment whose constituent elements are computers, computer networks, software products, databases, people, various kinds of technical and software communications, etc. The main purpose of ICT is to organize the storage and transmission of information.

The implementation of ICS functions is impossible without ICT oriented towards it. For example, an expert system, which is part of artificial intelligence systems, is based on artificial intelligence technologies that use various knowledge representation models, programming languages, and data transfer methods.

Today we can say with confidence that there is no such sector of the economy that has not yet been affected by ICT, and we are only one foot on the threshold of changes associated with the advent of such technologies, since they transform not only being, but also the consciousness of people, although the first shoots appeared 20-30 years ago. But development is proceeding at such a pace that it is difficult to predict what forms will appear in 10-15 years. One eloquent example: when creating MS Office 2007, Microsoft completely changed the binary format for storing and transmitting documents to the Open XML format, thereby integrating information into more modern ICS systems.[2]

Those basic technological operations, including a number of specific models and tools that were focused on solving special classes of problems and used in specific technologies as a separate information component, are being transformed and integrated into something unified, which will undoubtedly be the subject of further research. Examples include former traditional types of ICT: multimedia technologies; artificial intelligence technologies; geoinformation technologies; information security technologies; CASE technologies.

An analogue of the instrumental base of industrial production is the means of implementing ICT, which can be divided into methodological, informational, mathematical, algorithmic, technical and software.

Methodological tools define the requirements for the development, implementation and operation of ICT, providing information, software and technical compatibility. The most important of these are the requirements for standardization.

Information tools provide an effective representation of the subject area. These include information models, information classification and coding systems (all-Russian, sectoral), etc.

Mathematical tools include models for solving functional problems and models for organizing information processes that ensure effective decision making. Mathematical tools are automatically converted into algorithmic tools that ensure their implementation. Hardware and software tools set the level of ICT both in their creation and in their implementation.

Thus, a specific ICT is determined as a result of the compilation and synthesis of basic technological operations, “industry technologies” and means of implementation.

As an example of assessing the pace of ICT development in Russia and support measures, one can cite the words of the Minister of Information and Communications of the Russian Federation Leonid Reiman, who, speaking at a meeting chaired by First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov, proposed a set of measures for state support of the communications and ICT industry, including coordination target programs, measures in the field of public procurement, financial and technological support, the formation of an enabling environment.

“Our global task is to boost the Russian economy with the help of information technology. Today, the ICT industry is developing at a fairly rapid pace. In 2006, the volume of the industry grew by 20% and amounted to 1 trillion 162 billion rubles,” Sergey Ivanov noted and stressed that the dynamic economic development of any state is possible only if a modern information and telecommunications infrastructure is created. At the same time, the First Deputy Prime Minister noted the importance of developing the development of domestic software: “Software production must be kept as a strategic direction.”

“In the transition to an innovative development path, the ICT industry can, must and plays a key role in achieving high economic growth rates,” Leonid Reiman emphasized in his speech. According to the minister, state support for all segments of the domestic ICT industry will allow in 2010 to increase the volume of Russian production by almost 3 times, up to $32.5 billion. companies and requires a variety of government support mechanisms depending on the sources of demand.

Basic principles of information and communication technologies

The society of the beginning of the 21st century is characterized by the increased importance of intellectual work focused on the use of an information resource on a global scale, the need for operational communication between individual specialists, groups or communities of people, the desire for mutual acceptance and respect for the cultures of different peoples, the need to address global environmental, technological and production problems by the joint efforts of specialists from different countries or public organizations.

These features of modern society are characterized by the process of informatization of society, which is considered as a global social process. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that the collection, processing, transfer, use, and production of information are becoming the dominant activity in the sphere of social production. All this is carried out on the basis of modern computer technology, as well as various means of information interaction and exchange. Our current state of society is rightly called informational. The expression “information society” according to D. Bell [2] is a new name for the post-industrial society, emphasizing not its position in the sequence of stages of social development, but the basis for determining its social structure – information.

ICT facilities include software, hardware and software and technical means and devices that operate on the basis of microprocessor and computer technology, as well as modern means and systems for broadcasting information, information exchange. They provide operations for the collection, accumulation, storage, processing, transmission, production of information, access to information resources of computer networks (including global ones) [16].

In the technical and technological aspect, ICT tools include all types of computers; sets of terminal equipment for computers of all classes; local computer networks [9]; modern means of communication of all kinds, providing information interaction of users both at the local and global levels; input-output devices of information of all kinds; means and devices for manipulating information for its transmission and protection [3, 19,]; means of archival storage of information; devices for converting data from graphic or sound forms of data representation to digital and vice versa; computer graphics systems; systems for the presentation and use of audiovisual information; software systems and complexes [15]; artificial intelligence systems [11, 13, 18, 21]; tools and applications and systems that realize the potential of multimedia technologies [22], telecommunications, virtual reality, automated control systems [4, 7]; geoinformation technologies [8, 12].

3. Multimedia technologies: basic approaches

Multimedia technologies today are one of the most promising and popular areas of ICT. They are intended to create an information product containing “collections of images, texts and data, accompanied by sound, video, animation and other visual effects (Simulation), including an interactive interface and other control mechanisms.” Such a definition was formulated in 1988 by the European Commission dealing with the problems of introducing and using new technologies.

The ideological prerequisite for the emergence of multimedia technology is the concept of memory organization “MEMEX”, proposed in 1945 by the American scientist Vanniver Bush. It provided for the search for information in accordance with its semantic content, and not according to formal features (in the order of numbers, indices or alphabetically, etc.). Marshall McLuhan in his book [3] (see also section 1 above) wrote that after the invention of printing, a linear way of thinking prevailed, but since the late 1960s it has been replaced by a more global perception – hyperception (through images of television and other electronic facilities). In 1991, an employee of the European Physical Laboratory (CERN) Tim Berners-Lee proposed the very idea of hypertext as a computer implementation of textual information in the form of a continuous field, where control is organized using hyperlinks that allow moving from one place to another [4]. In the future, with the development of technology, it became possible to create systems that work with a combination of graphics, sound, video and animation (hypermedia environment), and finally, at present, all this has been transformed into the concept of multimedia, which combines both of these systems.

However, the surge of interest in the late 1980s in the use of multimedia technology in the humanities (in particular, in the sociocultural field) is undoubtedly associated with the name of an outstanding American businessman, the head of Microsoft Bill Gates, who owns the idea of creating and successfully implementing multimedia (commercial ) a product based on a service museum inventory database using all possible “environments” in it: images, sound, animation, hypertext system (“National Art Gallery. London”) [20]. It was this product that accumulated three basic principles of multimedia:

Representation of information using a combination of many human-perceived environments (actually, the term comes from the English multi – many, and media – environment);

the presence of several storylines in the content of the product (including those built by the user himself on the basis of “free search” within the framework of the information offered in the content of the product);

Artistic design of the interface and navigation tools.

In the future, Microsoft continued to implement and improve its multimedia products, primarily in the generations of the Windows operating system. And this applies not only to the multi-window system itself, which allows the user to choose the mechanism for working with information, but also icons or pictograms (Icons), the wonderfully conceived “accessibility” function, animation and sound, and finally, the still not fully implemented intellectual function. “voice control”, which is a priority for the company today.

The undoubted advantage and feature of the technology are the following multimedia features that are actively used in the presentation of information:

Non-linear navigation through information and access to the home page, table of contents or any other software application;

highlighting in the text or other visual material accompanying the image, “hot links”, through which the immediate receipt of reference or any other explanatory (including visual) information is carried out (hypertext and hypermedia technologies);

· work with various applications (text, graphic, video and sound editors, cartographic information);

storage of a large amount of very different information on one medium, and the constant updating of the lines of external media (CD, DVD, Blue Ray, Flash drives) makes it impossible even to assume an increase in memory in the near future;

Enlargement (detailing) on the screen of an image or its most interesting fragments, sometimes in a twenty-fold increase (“magnifying glass” mode), while maintaining image quality; this is especially important for the presentation of works of art and unique historical documents;

comparison of the image and its processing by various software tools for research or educational purposes;

implementation of continuous musical or any other audio accompaniment corresponding to a static or dynamic visual range;

the use of video fragments from films, video recordings, etc., the “freeze frame” function, frame-by-frame “scrolling” of the video;

Inclusion in the content of the disc of databases, image processing techniques, animation (for example, accompanying the story about the composition of the picture with a graphic animation demonstration of the geometric constructions of its composition), etc.;

creating your own “image galleries” (selections) from the information presented in the product (“pocket” or “my notes” mode);

· “remembering the path traveled” and creating “bookmarks” on the screen “page” of interest;

automatic viewing of the entire content of the product (“slide show”) or the creation of an animated and voiced “guide” for the product, the inclusion of animation components with informational components in the product.

One of the leading trends in the informatization of society is the development of multimedia technologies and their penetration into various areas of social life: production, business, science, education, mass consumer culture. Providing a wealth of content, syncretism of form, a combination of various types of textual, graphic, speech, music, video, photo information and a variety of ways to extract them, these technologies form a multimedia perception of the world. The leading political scientists, philosophers, sociologists, culturologists of our time are engaged in understanding the culturological phenomenon of multimedia, its positive and negative impact on society.

At the same time, multimedia is a special type of computer technology that combines both traditional static visual information (text, graphics) and dynamic information – speech, music, video clips, animation.

Since multimedia technologies are complex, individual elements of these technologies began to be designated by independent terms, where the word “multimedia” is used as an adjective: multimedia processes, multimedia systems, multimedia programs, multimedia products, multimedia services. For purposes of euphony, the adjective “multimedia, multimedia” is used in such phrases.

In the computing world, change is happening so fast that we can only track progress in terms of the near future. Although rapid change is typical in the personal computer market, hardware and software are being replaced at a faster rate by newer, cheaper, faster technology at lower cost. Noting that multimedia is a mixed technological progression, and not just a combination of hardware and software components, one can treat multimedia as a combination of platforms, communication tools, people, and cultural influence. However, the nature of these influences may be different. Multimedia can increase the efficiency and productivity of work, change the methods of communication used, which, of course, affects the person himself. Being an information and communication technology, multimedia allows you to overcome the physical space and, through the intensification of information exchange, contributes to the gradual leveling of the gap between the center and the periphery in terms of the concentration of cultural life exclusively in megacities. As a result, multimedia and, in particular, Internet technologies (which are essentially multimedia) allow the Russian community to integrate more and more freely into world cultural processes.

Multimedia tools have a large, constantly developing creative potential, which allows finding the most diverse and effective forms and methods of self-realization.

General technologization has covered all spheres of life of modern society. The indispensable attitude towards progress and innovation, embedded in the very logic of technological development, should have a positive and stimulating effect on culture and art, which are increasingly turning to their services. Therefore, a productive approach for understanding the nature of multimedia is an approach that allows us to consider multimedia as a cultural phenomenon.

At the moment, modern ICT, especially the rapidly developing Internet, is becoming an increasingly effective means of both the realization of individual creative potential and productive collective cooperation to solve common problems. Education based on the common interests of local and international communities, thanks to easily accessible and direct communication, as well as freedom of access to information (cultural and art servers, mailing lists, video conferences, etc.), in general, accelerates the development of culture and public relations, makes them more dynamic.

A distinctive feature of modern information, primarily multimedia, technologies is their ability not only to produce a product intended for consumption, but also, more importantly, to have an indirect impact on the person using them, changing his idea of himself. ICTs are able to perform this anthropological function because in the digital product they produce, a person, as in a mirror, recognizes elements of his own intellectual activity. Such a reification of the events and phenomena of the “inner world” forces us to take a fresh look at what seemed already well known, to outline other aspects of its comprehension.

The considered ICT is the result of such achievements of information society technologies as the invention of “virtual reality” equipment and the transformation of the Internet into a global computer network. In both cases, we are talking not so much about the features of the audiovisual-tactile environment in which the virtual reality equipment immerses the user, or about the specific opportunities for communication, obtaining information, transactions, etc. that the Internet provides to the consumer today, how much about that unusual perspective of considering problems that seem to be quite remote from the sphere of information technology, the self-emergence of which was provoked precisely by these technological innovations.

Marshall McLuhan is the first mass media theorist who was ahead of his time in many ways and, in fact, predicted the future in the 1970s. the advent of the era of information technology, – proposed a cultural concept that described the consistent evolution of technical means in different periods of history that revolutionized the entire practice (and accompanying theory) of interpersonal communication – from the wheel and the printing press to supersonic aviation and color television. The absence of a computer and the global Internet in this chain is due only to the fact that McLuhan died in 1980, a year before the invention of the personal computer, having managed, however, with amazing insight to predict almost all the changes that this brought to our lives. another key innovation in communication technology.

3.1 Applications of multimedia

We list only some of the most important areas of application of multimedia.

Multimedia and business. Multimedia systems are being actively introduced into the business sphere. Business is becoming more and more global and international, in fact, thanks to modern means of communication, the importance of the office disappears, because employees can work at home, in the car – anywhere. Devices are already appearing on the market that provide remote online control over their workplace, apartment, etc. A new professional sphere is being formed – e-business.

The role of multimedia in institutions and offices is increasing markedly. Owners of shops, kiosks, trading companies can demonstrate their products using multimedia. The use of multimedia programs is a logical consequence of the variety of possibilities offered by the corresponding hardware and software.

The field of window advertising is a classic example of the use of multimedia. With the help of such showcases, customers have the opportunity to independently receive the information they are interested in (request the necessary information and receive it on the screen). For example, these can be bank operating rooms, where information about loans, various banking transactions can be reported, halls at exhibitions and fairs, car showrooms, travel agencies, airports, railway stations, etc.

Such a help system can also be used during non-working hours if the screen is located behind a glass showcase with a keyboard in a special showcase design that allows interfering with the operation of the information system by requesting the necessary information. You can, for example, leaf through the catalog and also look at the image of the desired product, and, of course, you can order products by their product specification or number. The user can familiarize himself with the samples of goods, compare them with each other. This is what is now offered in online stores, network kiosks.

There are a variety of databases that provide information about manufacturers of a particular product, for example, the database “Russian General Register of Producers of Goods and Services”, legal databases, which are increasingly being prepared using multimedia technology, not only providing textual information, but also accompanying it with sound, visual effects. A well-known supplier of hypertext databases of legal subjects is the firm Consultant Plus[5], as well as the companies Garant-Park[6], Kodeks[7], which are information and analytical associations with an extensive network of representative offices throughout Russia.

Multimedia in education. Another of the possibilities of multimedia is education. Multimedia education in the modern world is seen as a process of personal development with the help and on the material of multimedia means in order to form a culture of communication with the media environment, creative, communication skills, critical thinking, skills for the full perception, interpretation, analysis and evaluation of multimedia information, teaching various forms of self-expression in the help of multimedia technology.

Multimedia programs for teaching, for example, a foreign language, make this process much more accessible than the traditional way of memorizing foreign words, implementing a learning method with passion. Instead of repeating the same phrase over and over, trying to remember it, it is enough to turn on a computer with multimedia equipment, watch and listen to how a native speaker pronounces it. Barbara Means, an educator-researcher at the Stanford Research Center,[8] put forward the methodological concept of “learning with involvement.” Here are some of her stats:

students are involved in lesson and interdisciplinary creative practical tasks;

students participate in interactive learning;

Students collaborate

· students learn through research and search;

Students are responsible for their own learning.

American scientists Fletcher, McNeil, Nelson [9] conducted a comparative analysis of traditional forms of education and multimedia teaching aids. Carrying out their research independently of each other, scientists came to the general conclusion that multimedia educational programs have significant advantages over conventional, traditional ones.

The works of domestic scientists, various experiments on the use of multimedia confirm the conclusion of American colleagues. It is known that during the learning process, students master no more than a quarter of the proposed material. Multimedia technology, on the other hand, makes it possible to increase this indicator by 2–3 times, since it provides the opportunity for syncretic learning, i.e. simultaneously visual and auditory perception of the material, active participation in the management of its presentation, return to those sections that require re-analysis.

The use of multimedia in education and training is promising both for general education and self-education, as well as for business and professional development of a specialist. In the future, the role of multimedia in the field of education will increase, as the knowledge that provides a high level of professional qualification is always subject to rapid changes. The current level of development of science, especially in technical fields, requires constant updating, and enterprises based on competition must be very flexible in their activities. This applies equally to both ordinary employees and managers.

Systems for computer-assisted training already accompany one product or another, but of course a system of this type must be ordered from a specialist company. Until now, computer-assisted training has been used mainly in the production sector – to improve the skills of personnel. Opel is supporting a new way of collaborative training of employees, who must, using images and animations, prepare a program for their future production activities. IBM also uses computer-assisted training to demonstrate how local area networks work. Bayer has been successfully using computer systems to train internal and external staff for many years. The list of firms that have adopted this way of acquiring knowledge is actually much longer.

The first attempt to use a computer for teaching was in the 1970s. was not very successful, due to the low performance of hardware and software at that time. In addition, the programs were not flexible enough, so motivation, and hence learning success, was inconclusive. Today’s generation of tutorials offer users a lot of customization options, ie. the student, mastering the educational material, sets the speed of learning, the volume of the material and the degree of its difficulty.

Numerous studies confirm the success of the computer-assisted learning system. It is very difficult to make an objective comparison with the old, traditional methods of teaching, however, it can be said that attention during the work with multimedia-based interactive learning program, as a rule, is doubled, thus freeing up additional time. The savings in the time required to study a particular material is on average 30%, and the acquired knowledge is stored in memory much longer.

Marketing experts have long (before the advent of multimedia applications in the learning system) noticed a clear connection between the method by which the student mastered the material and the ability to recall (restore in memory) the stage of mastering the material. For example, only a quarter of the material heard remains in memory. If the student has the opportunity to perceive the material visually, then the proportion of the material remaining in memory rises to one third. This is not surprising, since About 80% of the information a person perceives through the organs of vision. With combined exposure (through vision and hearing), the share of learned material reaches half, and if the student is involved in active actions in the learning process, for example, using interactive learning programs such as multimedia applications, then the share of learned material can be 75%.

Multimedia and programming technologies. Multimedia is a new technology for creating software products that relieves a non-professional user of the need for complex programming of program objects (sounds, dynamic graphics effects, dialog menus, etc.). This is implemented in special multimedia shells. In the preparation of programs based on such shells, the element of creativity increases. Some features of modern design are often associated with the advent of Web 2.0 technology. Their main rule, most often found in the requirements for sites, is usability.

Usability is a measure of the quality of the user experience acquired while interacting with a product or system, such as a website, software application, etc. In other words, it is a combination of factors that influence the user experience (see Table 1).

Table 1.

Ease of learning How quickly a user can learn to perform simple tasks if he has never seen the system interface before.
Usage efficiency Once a user has learned how to use the system, how quickly can they complete tasks?
memorability If the user has previously worked with the system, how much can he remember and will he have to learn the system again?
Number and severity of errors How often does the user make mistakes while working with the system, how serious are these mistakes and how to fix them?
Subjective satisfaction To what extent does the user enjoy working with the system?

Multimedia technology serves as a promising and reliable tool that allows the creator of educational text (commercial video, etc.) to provide information arrays in a larger volume than the user can expect; visually, in an integrated form, include not only text, graphics, diagrams, but also sound, animation, video; select types of information in the sequence that corresponds to the logic of knowledge and the pace of perception of a particular user.

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