Political Science Questions 120 – 160.
120) Centralization of public administration, unification of law and citizenship, lack of political independence of administrative-territorial units is typical for the following form of government (1 answer): (Answer: unitary state);
121) What does a unitary state consist of? (1 answer) (Answer: a unitary state consists of administrative-territorial units);
122) Name the country with a unitary state structure… (1 answer)
a) Canada; b) Germany; c) China ; d) Brazil.
123) An asymmetric federation is a kind of federal state, the subjects of which (1 answer): (Answer: Asymmetric federation is a kind of federal state, the subjects of which are characterized by different status );
124) Confederation in the modern world is (1 answer):
a) a union of states that deliberately transfer part of their sovereignty to a single authority; b) the union of several federal states; c) a union of states, in which the latter retain their sovereignty in full; d) form of government, transitional from a unitary state to a federation;
125) The desire for isolation, which, as a rule, manifests itself among national minorities in multinational states and is aimed at creating independent states or national-state autonomies is (Answer: separatism);
126) Which of the following states is federal? (1 answer)
a) India; b) Denmark; c) Great Britain; d) Japan; e) France;
127) The dominance of the state in the economy, social, cultural, etc. life is called … (1 answer): (Answer: Etatism);
128) Which of the following provisions does not characterize the key activities (functions) of the state? (1 answer)
a) exercising power and maintaining the political stability of society, the implementation of a political course approved by society; b) ensuring the interaction of all parts of the social system; c) stimulation and regulation of economic activity; d) establishment of legal norms, maintenance of law and order, legality in society; e) the implementation of manipulation and violence against society; f) regulation of relations between social communities (groups) based on the principles of equality before the law, respect for their rights and interests; g) ensuring national security and defense of the country, development of mutually beneficial international cooperation;
129) Determine the features of the presidential republic (1 answer): (Answer: Features of the presidential republic)
Characteristic features of the presidential republic:
1. The powers of the head of state and head of government are combined in the hands of one person – the president.
2. The highest official of the state – the president, is elected in general elections and receives a mandate directly from the people.
3. The President independently forms the government, it is accountable to him.
4. The head of state in a presidential republic has more powers in the sphere of executive power than the head of state in a parliamentary republic.
130) What are the parliamentary republics, where the president is the head of state, but has mainly representative functions, and the first person in the state is the head of government (1 answer) a) France, Austria, Poland, Bulgaria; b) Germany, Greece, Italy; c) USA, Brazil, Mexico; d) Bolivia, Colombia, Honduras;
131) What are the characteristic features of a unitary state? (1 answer) (answer: The main features of a unitary state):
1) A single constituent normative legal act (or a combination of such acts) for the entire state, the norms of which have supremacy throughout the country;
2) Uniform for the whole country the highest authorities;
3) Unified system of legislation;
4) Single citizenship;
5) Single monetary unit;
6) The constituent parts of a unitary state do not have signs of sovereignty;
132) What is the country in which the form of government is a parliamentary monarchy (1 answer):
a) Great Britain; b) Brunei; in the USA; d) Saudi Arabia;
133) Parliamentary republic exists (1 answer):
a) in Spain b) France; c) Italy; d) Jordan;
134) What is state sovereignty? (1 answer) (Answer: STATE SOVEREIGNTY – the ability of a single state power to independently and independently exercise its functions both within the country and in relations with other countries);
135) Which of the judgments corresponds to the Constitution of the Russian Federation? (1 answer)
a) the government of the Russian Federation – the highest representative body of power; b) the government cannot be removed by the State Duma; c) the government makes federal laws; d ) government – an executive body that adopts decisions within the framework of the Constitution and federal laws;
136) Select a country with a federal state structure (1 answer):
a) Great Britain; b) Canada; c) France; d) Japan. b) Canada;
137) The way the political system of society functions, the totality of forms and methods of exercising political power is … (1 answer): (Answer: Political regime);
138) The most important signs of a totalitarian regime are (4 answers ): (Answer: Signs of a totalitarian political regime):
1. The presence of a single mass party headed by a charismatic leader, as well as the actual merging of party and state structures. This is a kind of “party-state”, where the central party apparatus occupies the first place in the power hierarchy, and the state acts as a means of implementing the party program;
2. Monopolization and centralization of power, when such political values as subordination and loyalty to the “party-state” are primary in comparison with material, religious, aesthetic values in motivation and evaluation of human actions. Within the framework of this regime, the line between political and non-political spheres of life (“the country as a single camp”) disappears. All life activities, including the level of private, personal life, are strictly regulated. The formation of authorities at all levels is carried out through closed channels, bureaucratically;
3. “Unanimous power” of the official ideology, which is imposed on society as the only true, true way of thinking through massive and targeted indoctrination (media, education, propaganda). At the same time, the emphasis is not on individual, but on “cathedral” values (state, race, nation, class, clan). The spiritual atmosphere of the society is distinguished by fanatical intolerance towards dissent and “other action” on the principle of “who is not with us is against us”;
4. The system of physical and psychological terror, the regime of a police state, where the basic “legal” principle is dominated by the principle: “Only what is ordered by the authorities is allowed, everything else is prohibited.”
Totalitarian regimes traditionally include communist and fascist.
139) The principle “Only what is ordered by the authorities is allowed” characterizes the following political regime … (1 answer): Answer: Totalitarian political regime);
140) Authoritarianism is… (1 answer): (Answer: Authoritarianism (from Latin auctoritas – power, influence) – a political regime in which the holder of power (for example, a dictator) proclaims himself to have the right to power;
141) The hallmarks of authoritarianism are (3 answers):
a) the election of representative bodies of power; b) concentration (usurpation) of political power in one center; c) the relative autonomy of the life of civil society outside of politics; d) the presence of a mono-ideology that regulates all aspects of the life of society and citizens; e) striving for monopoly control over the political sphere of society, limited pluralism;
142) What typological feature characterizes an authoritarian political regime? (1 answer):
a) everything is allowed, except what is prohibited by law; b) everything that is not related to politics is allowed; c) only what is ordered by the authorities is allowed; d) everything is allowed, except for the change of power;
143) Political pluralism is … (1 answer): (Answer: POLITICAL PLURALISM – the possibility of free existence in society of various political views, schools, ideologies, political parties and organizations with different goals and programs);
145) Among the values that characterize democracy as an ideal of social organization are (3 answers): (Answer: values of democracy: 1) equality and freedom of all people; 2) active participation of the people in the political life of the country; 3) People’s sovereignty);
146) c) Determine the political course according to its characteristics: control over the state machine, reliance on the army, maneuvering between the main political and social forces (1 answer): a) Bonapartism; b) terror; c) totalitarianism; d) dictatorship; e) authoritarianism ;
147) The political regime is (1 answer): (Answer: The political (state) regime is a system of methods, ways and means of exercising political power);
148) What is the main criterion to determine the type of political regime in a particular country (1 answer):
a) the extent of bureaucracy and corruption in state bodies; b) the democratic nature of the relationship of state power with society and the individual; c) the number of political parties and other public associations; d) the degree of freedom and independence of the media from state control;
149) What political regime provides conditions for a pluralism of opinions and positions that reflect the interests of all citizens and public associations, including opposition ones? (1 answer) (Answer: Democratic regime);
150) The social “support” of totalitarianism are (1 answer ): (Answer: The social support of totalitarianism is primarily declassed lumpenized layers, “outsiders” of society);
151) Which of the following features are not characteristic of an authoritarian political regime? (1 answer)
a) the principle “everything that is not allowed by the authorities is prohibited” is implemented in the state;
b) the regime manipulates public consciousness and behavior, actively uses violent methods of governing society; c) political pluralism is dosed and controlled by state bodies and institutions; d) the presence of a developed civil society capable of controlling the activities of political power;
152) Which of the following is the main and necessary condition for the existence of a democratic political system (1 answer)? a) holding elections that guarantee a real opportunity to elect among many candidates; b) competence and education of managers; c) temporary restriction of the stay in power of political leaders; d) the presence of local governments;
153) What type of political regime corresponds to the following wording: “Unlimited power of one person or group of persons, which does not allow political opposition, but preserves the autonomy of the individual and society in non-political spheres”? (1 answer) (Answer: authoritarian political regime);
154) What political regime is characterized by the penetration of the state into all spheres of public life? (1 answer) (Answer: totalitarian political regime) ;
155) Who developed the theory of polyarchy? (1 answer) (Answer: R. Dahl);
156) Which of the following principles corresponds to the pluralistic concept of democracy? (1 answer) a) The idea of the autonomy of the individual and its primacy in relation to the people and their will.
b) A predominantly negative understanding of individual freedom.
c) Rivalry and the balance of group interests as the social basis of power.
d) Restriction of the competence and sphere of activity of the state mainly by the protection of public order, the security of citizens and social peace.
e) Political socialization of the individual, social groups and formations.
f) Development of political ideology.
g) Creation and improvement of institutions of political power.
h) Formation and nomination of political leaders;
157) Name the organization that the French political scientist R.-J. Schwarzenberg gave the following definition: “… is a continuously operating organization that exists both at the national and local levels, aimed at obtaining and exercising power and striving for this purpose to popular support” (1 answer): (Answer: political party);
158) Which of the following signs is not among the leading signs of a political party? (1 answer)
a) party – an organization, a long-term association of people; b) the party divides society into classes, layers; c) the party strives to gain power; d) parties participate in elections and parliamentary activities;
159) What are the most characteristic features of a political party (2 answers)? (Answer: 1) the desire to gain power; 2) search for support from the people);
160) What characteristic features of a multi-party system can you name (2 answers): Answer: 1) competition between several influential parties; 2) the multi-party system reflects the diverse interests of various social groups in a more differentiated way).
POLITICAL SCIENCE (QUESTIONS 160-200)
160) What characteristic features of a multi-party system can you name (at least 2)
none of the parties in parliament is able to independently rule the country.
Possible presence of spoiler parties
161) Which of the following functions is not implemented by opposition parties? (1 answer)
a) systematic criticism of the government, indicating its mistakes and shortcomings; b) making political decisions at the state level; c) proposals for alternative solutions to emerging problems; d) change of the existing government after the next elections.
162) Which countries have a multi-party political system (more than two parties competing for power)? (2 answers)
a) USA; b) France; To China; d) Cuba; e) North Korea; c) Holland; d) Great Britain.
163) An association of people pursuing political goals, but, as a rule, not having a clear organizational structure and ideological program, a fixed individual membership, acting until a specific joint goal is achieved is (1 answer):
Answer: social movement
164 What are the signs of interest groups (3 answers):
Interest groups are an association of members connected to protect a common interest.
Interest groups are created to achieve certain goals in public authorities.
Interest groups are trying to influence the authorities, to correct the political decisions made in their interests.
165 Which of the following political and non-political institutions belongs to pressure groups (1 answer):
government departments, trade unions, farmers
Based on the following signs, determine which party system is a system of “moderate pluralism” (1 answer): a) a group of parties strives to conquer state power, but there is no agreement in their relations, centrifugal tendencies prevail; b) from three to five parties are fighting for power, and none of them can win the elections; having reached a compromise, they jointly win and form coalition governments; c) two parties (bipartism) are the real contenders for power, and the rest do not prevent them from governing society alternately; d) the system includes several batches; e) the only party in society monopolizes state power.
171 Which judgment is correct? (1 answer)
a) all parties are divided only on the basis of class; b) each party has a program and charter; c) all parties aim at the struggle for state power; d) all parties have individual fixed membership.
Which statement is true? (1 answer)
a) France has a multi-party system; b) India has a one-party system; c) Germany has a two-party system; d) The United States has a multi-party system.
The classification of political parties, divided into personnel, mass and strictly centralized, was developed (1 answer): …
Answer. French theorist M. Duverger in the early 60s of the XX century;
174. Depending on their participation in the exercise of power, political parties are subdivided …
Answer: to the ruling and opposition
175. One of the functions of interest groups is the function of aggregation of interests. Which of the following definitions corresponds to this function? (1 answer):
a) informing the bodies that make political and administrative decisions on specific issues, and orienting them to the interests of citizens;
Answer: b) coordination through discussions of a set of particular requirements and the establishment of a certain hierarchy between them;
176 A group of people who make the most important political decisions, distinguished by special social, political, psychological qualities, prestige and a privileged position, is
Answer: The ruling political elite
177 Under the counter-elite is meant- Counter-elite – opposition to the ruling political elite part of the bureaucracy, a social group that fights for the right to join the elite or create a new one; a subject of politics who acts in a fairly organized way (legally or not) and seeks to get power into his own hands or transfer it to another political force.
178 The history of mankind is the history of a constant change of elites; some rise, others fall,” he said.
Answer: Vilfredo Pareto
Mark two terms that indicate the methods of selecting political elites (2 answers): Answer: Entrepreneurs and guilds
What system of selection for the political elite can be characterized as competitive-democratic? Answer: entrapment system
Political Leadership Involves Answer: Political leadership involves constant influence on others.
A person involved in the management of the country, state, society, who has distanced himself from his party, is (1 answer):
a) notable b) a politician; c) statesman; d) a political leader.
What is the name of the type of leadership associated with the ability of a politician to influence society, based on his personal magnetism, with public opinion endowing him with superhuman qualities and abilities? (1 answer) Answer: Charismatic leadership
What function of a political leader is expressed in coordinating positions and uniting various interest groups on the basis of a common idea, common values and ideals? (1 answer) Answer: coordination
The image of a political leader, emerging in the public mind, is indicated using the category Answer: Traditional leader
What is the name of the rational management of the state, carried out with the help of a professional layer of officials? (1 answer)
a) meritocracy; b) bureaucracy; c) ochlocracy; d) political leadership; e) the establishment. Answer: b
187 A policy based on the arbitrary decisions of a political leader that does not take into account the objective conditions and needs of public life is (1 answer): Answer: Voluntarism
188 The extreme exaltation of the bearer of power, characteristic of the political life of Russia, is usually called Answer: Leaderism, Cult of Personality
189 “The power of the elders”, the predominance of the elderly in the ruling elite is (1 answer): Gerontocracy
190 Corruption is Bribing with bribes, venality of officials, politicians.
191 The political elite is a privileged group that occupies leading positions in power structures and is directly involved in making the most important decisions related to the use of power.
192 Which of the listed functions does not belong to the functions of the political elite a) making political decisions and monitoring their implementation; b) coordination, generalization and representation of group interests; c) political design; d) execution of decisions of the highest political authority.
193 A political leader is
Answer: POLITICAL LEADER
the leading person in the political process, performing the functions of uniting and rallying social forces, setting the direction of activity for state and public institutions, political movements, which largely determines the features of the course for political transformations in the country.
194 Which political leader practices a democratic style of government (2 answers): Charismatic and rational-legal
195 What are the reasons for the “transformation” of some leaders with charismatic qualities into dictators? (1 answer) Answer: The temptation of power
196 Who has the right, according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to initiate the issue of removing the president from office? (1 answer)
a) the Federation Council; b) the Constitutional Court; c) the State Duma; d) the Supreme Court.
197 Which of the following circumstances cannot be considered as the cause of absenteeism? (1 answer):
a) a high degree of satisfaction of personal interests, the lack, as a result, of interest in politics; b) distrust of political institutions, disbelief in the ability to influence the process of developing and making political decisions; c) stay in places of deprivation of liberty for committed criminal offenses; d) low level of education, lack of understanding of the relationship between politics and private life; e) lack of democratic traditions, activist political culture.
198 The system of views on political power, the state structure and methods of their regulation, the doctrine that justifies the claims to power of any social group is. Answer: ideology
199 For the liberal ideology, the most important values are (2 answers): The supremacy of human rights and freedoms, social order
200 What ideology is characterized by skepticism towards social change, the theses “That which can not be changed, does not need to be changed” and “Attempts to eliminate the existing evil usually cause even more evil”? (1 answer) Answer: conservatism
200 to 240
The doctrine that emphasizes, along with the principles of free competition, private enterprise and democracy, the need for state intervention to create favorable conditions for the implementation of these principles is (1 answer):
The slogans of social justice, freedom, solidarity, as well as reformism and orientation towards the creation of a welfare state are characteristic of the ideology (1 answer):
A kind of political ideology that presupposes the organization of society on the basis of the principles of collectivism, equality, justice, satisfaction of all the needs of the individual, is called … (1 answer)
What is the name of the political ideology that upholds the exclusivity and the right to hegemony of an ethnic group and offers support for its achievement on terror and aggression? (1 answer)
What term refers to the forced imposition of certain values, goals, ideologies on a person (social group, people) by subjects of power? (1 answer)
Activities aimed at ensuring popularity among the masses through unfounded promises and demagogic slogans are called … (1 answer):
Political ideology is (1 answer):
a) science; 6) a form of false consciousness; c) a doctrine indicating ways and means of overcoming political crises; d) theoretically substantiated position of the political elite; e) a “tool” for manipulating public consciousness and behavior; f) a means of cognition and transformation of political reality; g) any of the listed approaches is possible, except for (a); h). all answers are correct.
The progressive influence of a particular political ideology on social development depends (1 answer):
from the behavior of political leaders
Identify the key political ideas of “classical” liberalism (4 answers):
civil rights, political freedom, economic freedom, natural law, utilitarianism and progress
Supporters of what political ideology absolutized the principle “the state is a night watchman”? (1 answer)
Define the political ideas of the social democratic ideology (as opposed to the communist one) (2 answers):
social justice, solidarity
The most important idea of liberalism proclaims (1 answer):
the rights and freedoms of every person
Which of the following statements belongs to the representatives of the Marxist doctrine? (1 answer)
“Politics is primarily the sphere of relations between classes.”
The elements of the material and spiritual environment that are used by the subjects of politics to influence objects are …
Are the judgments correct?
A. The property of politics is autonomy, development regardless of other spheres of society.
B. The property of politics is inclusion, the possibility of penetrating into other spheres of society, combinations with non-political phenomena.
d) Only B is true.
The political sphere of society as a certain integrity, consisting of a set of elements, is characterized by a _______ approach.
In the modern scientific understanding, politics is …
c) The area of social relations regarding power in society
Match the concept of “legality” with its content:
legality; formal (legal) consolidation of power in the relevant state acts
Which of the following is true about political power?
distribution throughout society
What term denotes respect for the authorities and fidelity to the laws in force; loyalty to the country and government?
In a democratic regime, the principle of ____________ authorities is the basis for the interaction of authorities.
Sociotechnical, political, ideological, psychological – all these are ______________ legitimacy.
d) Means of achievement.
In modern Western societies, the _____________ type of legitimacy is most developed.
Which of the following is a form of government?
Federation, unitary state, confederation
What type of republic is characterized by the responsibility of the government to the parliament and the president:
The principles of the functioning of civil society are … (2 answers)
a) freedom of the sphere of private interests from political control
c) public ownership of the means of production
The necessary conditions for the formation of civil society in Russia include … (2 answers)
c) development of economic competition; d) the formation of the rule of law.
A political organization for the management of the general affairs of society is…
The author of the work “Categories of Systemic Policy Analysis” is …
a) D. Easton.
The system of special institutions through which the state administration of society and the protection of its main interests is carried out is …
a) The mechanism of state power
The presence of a bicameral parliament usually indicates…
Does not apply to the signs of the state …
b) Supreme ownership of the means of production
According to the criterion of the level of freedom in the relations “power – society”, ______________ and ______________ types of political regimes are distinguished (2 answers):
Democratic and non-democratic
The authors of the work “Totalitarian dictatorship and autocracy” are … (2 answers)
a) Z. Brzezinski. d) K. Friedrich.
The defining layer of civil society is considered …
The result of democratic reforms is called …
b) Formation of civil society through the interaction of the state with independent public associations. c) Building a clear vertical line of executive power. d) The growth of the bureaucracy.
The conditions and factors for the formation of civil society do NOT include …
a) Patriarchal type of political culture.
The extreme exaltation of the bearer of power, characteristic of the political life of Russia, is usually called …
The directions of the formation of civil society in modern Russia DO NOT include (-yat) xia …
a) Strengthening power structures to combat national extremism and international terrorism.
Tolerance for other people’s opinions with their diversity is called …
240. . Tolerance for other people’s opinions with their diversity is called …
241. The founders of the “psychological” interpretation of totalitarianism are …
c) W. Reich and E. Fromm
243. . The Russian historical political tradition is characterized by the type of formation of the elite according to the system
244. . The most important feature of a political party is
b) protecting the interests of people
245. The party of power “in modern Russia is called
b) United Russia.
246. . The model of political opposition, characteristic of a parliamentary form of government and built on the basis of a multi-party system, is called
247. Highlight the definition of the political process accepted in modern political science
d) a set of actions of political subjects to carry out their functions in the sphere of power
248. The political process is a form of functioning of the political system of society, changing in space and time; the total activity of political subjects, which ensures the functioning and development of the political system.
249. What are the characteristic signs of the decline of the political process? (1 answer)
b) the political system does not adequately respond to social needs, problems and contradictions; growing distrust of citizens in the institutions of power;
251. From the point of view of the significance for society of certain forms of political regulation of social relations, political processes are divided into (2 answers):
a) Peripheral d) Basic.
252. The modes of flow of the political process are
b) Functioning; c) Development
254.; What actions are aimed at a qualitative transformation of the political system of society
d) providing effective social management
255. Political modernization is the transition of backward, traditional societies to modern models of the political system
256. The process of changing the systemic qualities of political life and the functions of the institutions of the political system during the transition from a traditional society to a modern one is Modernization
257. The core of modernization theories is the dichotomy…
a) Monarchy – republic
258. Main conditions for successful political modernization of society
259. What are the main signs of democratic elections
freedom of voting elected right, nomination of candidates
260. The circle of persons with the right to vote in elections is denoted by the term Electorate
261. Democratic elections are called upon to fulfill the following functions
1. Provide an opportunity for various social groups in society to express their interests.
2. Contribute to the political stability of society (due to the fact that elections are a legitimate means of expressing their attitude to state policy, and every voter has the right to express his opinion)
3. Society exercises control over the activities of the authorities (in case of dissatisfaction, they put other people into power).
262. INDIRECT ELECTION – an election system in which voters do not participate directly in the election of a deputy of a representative body or head of state, but elect their representatives for this .
263. What types of electoral systems to determine the results of voting are used in modern political practice
majority system and preferential voting
264. A candidate who receives a simple majority of votes, i.e. 50% + one vote, is considered elected according to the ______________ electoral system.
265. The decision of issues of legislation by the electorate is carried out in the course of …
266. The practical-organizational component of the electoral system is called …
; b) Electoral process
267. Elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation, in accordance with the new electoral legislation (2014), are carried out according to the following system
268. Absenteeism is the avoidance of voters from participating in voting in elections, or, in a broader sense, political behavior characterized by inaction, that is, avoidance of any political participation (electoral behavior, party activity, participation in rallies and demonstrations, etc.). etc.), but mainly the avoidance of their direct electoral functions is implied.
269. Which of the following circumstances cannot be considered as a reason for absenteeism
a) 1 high degree of satisfaction of personal interests, lack, as a result, of interest in politics
270.; Elections in modern society are
b) a democratic mechanism for the formation of public authorities
271. Define the features of the proportional electoral system (3 answers): based on the principle of proportionality, allows you to achieve a relative correspondence between the number of votes and the number of mandates, Each party nominates its own list of candidates for elective positions, and the voter votes for the entire list of his party
272. Indicate the advantages of the majoritarian electoral system (2 answers): It is used both in the election of senior officials (president, governor, mayor), and in the election of collegiate authorities, specific candidates are elected
273. Indicate the shortcomings of the proportional electoral system (2 answers): partial loss of the principle of democracy, loss of communication between deputies and voters and / or specific regions, a high percentage barrier that does not allow a new and / or small party to pass.
274. Highlight a principle that is not related to the principles of the democratic organization of elections (1 answer):
275. Electoral technologies are a set of techniques, methods, methods of influencing voters, aimed at influencing their electoral behavior
276. Political culture is part of the general culture and heritage, including historical experience, memory of social and political events, political values, orientations and skills that directly affect political behavior. Political culture is one of the basic concepts of comparative political science, allowing a comparative analysis of the political systems of the world.
277. What is the name of the political culture that is predominant in a given society? (1 answer)
278. What types of political culture were distinguished by G. Almond and S. Verba?
patriarchal, subservient, activist.