Artistic and practical methods

Topic: Types of musical activities in kindergarten. Listening to music in kindergarten.

Number of hours: 2


I. Theoretical block.

The method is the way to achieve the goal, the way the teacher and children work.

Techniques concretize, detail methods.

Based on the specifics of the main tasks of the musical education of preschoolers, the methods and techniques of musical education can be defined as methods of interconnected activities of the teacher and children aimed at developing the musical abilities of children, forming the foundations of musical culture .

As well as in general pedagogy, methods are widely used in the music education of preschoolers, which are classified according to the source of transmission and acquisition of knowledge.


However, in music education, methods have their own specifics, due to the peculiarity of music.

Visual methods :

1. Visual – auditory . Associated with the impact of the music itself on the aesthetic sense of the child in the process of perceiving a piece of music. “observation of music” (B.A. Asafiev). This is a purposeful perception of music in various types of musical activity (singing, rhythm, listening, playing on DMI), performed by a teacher, a symphony orchestra, and various musical instruments.

*One of the important tricks is comparison.

Contrasting in nature works. Lullaby, dance. “Clowns” D.B. Kabalevsky, V. Salmanov “A hungry cat and a well-fed cat”

– comparison of one piece of music performed by different musical instruments. C. Saint-Saens “Swan” cello and harp, violin and piano.

– comparison of fine musical works, such as “The Lark” by P.I. Tchaikovsky with a real sample of sound, for example, the singing of a forest lark (sounds of nature )
– It is also interesting to compare the image in music of one image by different composers.

“Baba Yaga” M.P. Mussorgsky and “Baba Yaga” P.I. Tchaikovsky; “Grandma Yozhka” song in Spanish. T. Morozova and “Grandma Yozhka” folk teaser.

The educator can always use auditory visualization for various educational purposes, using techniques for the development of auditory attention. For older preschoolers, without further ado, music will remind you what to do. (may be a signal for regime moments, the exit of characters in theatrical activities, etc.)

2. Visually – visually. Concretization of the child’s ideas about artistic images. Has an auxiliary value. Display of toys, illustrations, diagrams. The toy will attract the attention of the baby, showing a picture, and even better, a real musical instrument will help the older preschooler gain knowledge about the instruments. The illustration of the autumn landscape will complement the perception of the work of P.I. Tchaikovsky “Autumn Song” and

It is important not to impose patterns on children, not to impoverish the child’s creative perception. It is best to use this method after listening to a piece of music, as an addition, or when listening again. The use of TCO often adds brightness to the educational process, it is important to remember the age restrictions on the use of such visibility.

Visual clarity includes showing a teacher or a child during training in various types of musical activities. -showing singing techniques, ways of playing musical instruments, movements, etc. etc., this method is effective together with the practical one. The child looked – repeated on his own.

Musical didactic games are most often based on this method.

3. Tactile visualization – a direct sensation by the body of wave vibrations of musical sound. Without noticing it, people tap their feet to the rhythm of the music, shake their heads, move their fingers. This feature of perception can be used for the musical development of children.

verbal methods.

They act as a guide for the child in the perception and performance of music. In music education, it is used not so much to convey the necessary information, but to create a figurative – psychological mood. “The word will never be able to fully explain the entire depth of music, but without the word one cannot approach this subtlest sphere of cognition of feelings … The explanation of music should carry something poetic in itself, something that would bring the word closer to music.” V.A. Sukhomlinsky. The tone of the teacher’s speech is important, its emotional coloring. The tone of the teacher’s speech can enhance the impression of an unusual, fabulous situation,.

Conversations with children should not be lengthy, but on the contrary, they should be concise and specific.
A conversation with children is usually built in the form of questions and answers. The teacher asks questions in connection with the content of the work, avoiding unnecessary details and distractions. The questions specify the content, the nature of the musical image, the form and means of expressiveness of the musical work. For example,

What feelings does the music convey?

– What the music is about.

-How the music tells. (means of expression)

Or after performing dance music, you can ask the children: “What did I play, a dance or a march? What is the nature of this music? What movement can be performed under it?

Story. Develops associative thinking, imagination, deepens the child’s understanding of the musical image.

Explanation is used in the process of getting to know a new piece of music, a new type of activity. The explanation should be short, precise, clear, which helps to understand the task facing the child in the process of his communication with music.

An explanation in the form of a figurative story is used before listening to program musical works and performing plot musical games. A figurative story contributes to the interest of children, a deeper understanding of the content of the work, causes them emotional experiences, and develops their imagination. So, for example, you can explain the game for older children:

“Game with a tambourine” music. M. Kraseva

“In one city there is a main square, let’s make it even and beautiful ( children stand in a circle ). At night, the inhabitants of the city sleep ( the calm part of the piece of music sounds, the children sit down, close their eyes ). And at night, good wizards lay tambourines behind the back of the children, at a signal the children wake up and look at who has the tambourine, then these children go to the center of the square and play tambourines to cheerful, cheerful music, and the rest of the children dance. But as soon as you hear that the music has changed, then the night has come again, and everyone falls asleep again, and the children who have tambourines become magicians, they will put them quietly to any child and themselves must have time to fall asleep before the signal. In the morning we will have new musicians”

poetic word. Reading a short prose or poetic piece of literature or a fragment of it before playing music also helps children to better understand and feel its figurative structure. For example, listening to the play “Santa Claus” by R. Schumann can be decorated with a poem by N. Nekrasov

…. Not the wind rages over the forest,

Streams did not run from the mountains,

Frost-voivode patrol

Bypasses his possessions.

Looks – good blizzards

Forest paths brought

And are there any cracks, cracks,

Is there any bare ground anywhere?

Walks – walks through the trees,

Cracking on frozen water

And the bright sun plays

In his shaggy beard.

When using varieties of the verbal method, it must be remembered that excessive verbalization of the educational process can lead to a decrease in the inherent value of music as a means of communication and reduce the significance of the child’s own musical activity. So, for example, when learning children’s dances, it is unacceptable for the educator to give instructions and explanations during the sound of the work without an obvious need, it is better to do this after or use other methods (show, help in performing the movement)

Explanations. They are given when showing the movements of games, dances, exercises and various singing techniques during the lesson in a clear and concise form. The vagueness of explanations often leads to misunderstanding of the task and poor quality of execution. The explanation should be closely related to the display. The teacher teaches children to listen to the explanation to the end. For example, if the children, following the teacher, begin to repeat the movements while learning them, he says: “Do not make the movements, listen carefully and see how they should be performed.” If you need to explain how, for example, to sing longer notes in the song “Kotya, Kitten, Kitten”, the teacher says: “Let’s listen to ourselves, did everyone sing the last note drawlingly, how long did they pull it for the cat to hear.”

Directions. They are given during the performance of games, dances and exercises by children. For example: “You need to spin over your right shoulder, pull your socks off,” etc. Instructions help the child understand how to perform certain movements, clarify the way to perform actions.

Remarks. Addressed to the mind of a child who, for some reason, is distracted from the process of completing tasks. Comments should be strict, but at the same time correct.

Artistic and practical methods

Associated with motor reactions and active actions of the child in the process of his communication with music in various forms of performing activity. In singing, rhythm, playing on DMI, the specific activity of children is considered as purposeful education and training in the form of systematic exercises, practicing ways to apply knowledge according to the model.

In singing and in musical-rhythmic movements, it is necessary to guide the children in such a way that they strive to perform the task with the utmost expressiveness. When teaching children, one should gradually complicate the tasks in accordance with their age development, but do not jump over the assimilation of the skills defined by the education program. In difficult cases, it is necessary to conduct in-depth individual work.

Depending on the educational tasks, this method can be problematic , where children themselves find ways to act, or perform variable tasks.

Acquiring a problematic character, the artistic-practical method develops creativity in the child in the perception of music, singing, dancing, playing on DMI

The listed teaching methods and methodological techniques are effective in close combination with each other , but the main means of education is music, which is methodical in itself. So young children fall silent when the teacher sings, and when they hear the piano playing, they show interest and positive emotions.

Along with general didactic methods, the method of musical education of children uses methods determined by the aesthetic essence and intonation nature of musical art.

-The method of direct exposure to music is suitable for solving a specific problem

-Method of indirect influence, which creates conditions for development even in the independent activities of children.

O.P. Radynova, exploring the musical culture of preschoolers, highlights

* contrast comparison method.

* a method of likening the nature of music, activating the creative manifestations of the child.

Types of assimilation

-motor-motor (transfer of the character of music in motion)

-tactile (touch according to the nature of the music)

– verbal (verbal transfer of knowledge about music)

– vocal (sing along)

– mimic (transfer of character in facial expressions)

– timbre-instrumental (orchestration of musical works)

-intonation (determination of the emotional coloring of music, based on intonation)

– color (based on the “color – mood” technique

-polyartistic (based on the comparison of works of various types of art)

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