Artistic and advertising graphics

The section of computer science dealing with the problems of creating and processing graphic images on a computer is called computer graphics.

How are all these pictures on the computer screen obtained? You already know very well that any work performed by a computer is carried out in computer memory. Water is information stored in the computer’s memory. This means that the “pictures” on the screen are a display of information, hired by certain programs that process certain information. The display is the device

History of computer graphics

The results of calculations on the first computers were long columns of numbers printed on paper. In order to comprehend the results obtained, a person took paper-likeness—the most important condition for understanding intelligibly. Such is the property of the human psyche: naructium. In other words, a person manually performed graphical processing of the results of calculations. In graphical form, such results become more visual and use pencils, rulers and other drawing tools and draw graphs, diagrams, drawings of calculated constants.

The idea arose to entrust graphic processing to the machine itself. Initially, programmers learned how to get drawings in character printing mode. On paper sheets, with the help of symbols (asterisks, dots, crosses, letters), drawings resembling a mosaic were obtained. So graphs of functions, images of flows of liquids and gases, electric and magnetic fields were printed (Fig. 4.1).

With the help of character printing, programmers managed to get even artistic images. In a rare computer center, the walls were not decorated with printouts of portraits of Einstein, reproductions of Mona Lisa and other machine paintings.

Then there were special devices for graphics: graphs, diagrams, technical drawings, and so on. To control the work of plotters, they began to create special software. The title is plotters). With the help of such a device, on a sheet of paper with an ink pen, graphic image output is applied to paper – graph plotters (other on

A real revolution in computer graphics, paints, drawing tools, in the same form as on paper with the help of a pencil display, it became possible to obtain drawings, came about with the advent of graphic displays. On the screen

A drawing from the computer’s memory can be displayed not only on the screen, but also on paper using a printer. Susunkov at the level of photography. There are color printers that give the quality of ri

The applications of computer graphics are very diverse. For each direction, special programs, or graphic packages, are created. Noe software, which is called graphic software

scientific graphics

This direction appeared the very first. Purpose – visualization (i.e., a visual image) of objects with a scientific presentation of their results (Fig. 4.2).

business graphics

This area of computer graphics is intended for sotation, statistical summaries – these are the objects for which business graphic institutions are used. Planned indicators, reporting documents, illustrations, often used in the work, various illustrative materials are created (Fig. 4.3).

Business graphics software is usually included in spreadsheets, which we’ll get to know a little later.

Design graphics

It is used in the work of design engineers, inventors of new technology. This type of computer-aided device (Fig. 4.4) is used to prepare technical drawings for design engineering (CAD). Graphics in CAD software is an indispensable element of automation systems.

Graphics in combination with calculations makes it possible to visually search for the optimal design, naiboviya, to which changes in design can lead. By means of design graphics, you can get flat images (projections, sections) and spatial three-dimensional images.

Illustrative graphics

The illustrative graphics software is of general purpose. Therefore, it refers to application software and other tools. Illustrative graphics packages do not have any production focus. Drawing, drawing, just as he does it on paper with the help of pencils, brushes, paints, compasses, line a person to use a computer for arbitrary drawing.

The simplest software tools for illustrative graphics are called graphic editors. More about graphic editors will be discussed below.

Artistic and advertising graphics

This is a relatively new industry, but has already become popular largely thanks to television. With the help of a computer, commercials, cartoons, computer games, video tutorials, video presentations and much more are created.

Graphic packages for these purposes require large rivers to natural) images, as well as “moving pictures” (Fig. 4.5).

To create realistic images in graphics hardware packages in this category, a complex math is used.

Obtaining drawings of three-dimensional (spatial) objects, their rotations, approximations, removals, deformities (glossy, matte, porous) requires calculations that take into account the laws of optics. related to geometry. Pere

computer animation

Getting moving images on a computer display is called computer animation. The word “animation” means “animation”.

In the recent past, animators sonia. The resulting drawings, displayed sequentially on the screen with a certain frequency, create the illusion of movement (Fig. 4.6). They are connected to the mathematical description of this type of motion project, and the computer will calculate and display all intermediate states. Such work is also associated with calculations, calculations take a significant part of the routine work for themselves. For example, an artist can create on the screen drawings of only the initial and final states of the moving object, and he has been creating his films by hand. To convey the movement, they had to make thousands of drawings, differing from each other in small changes. These drawings were then shot on film. computer ani system

Briefly about the main

Computer graphics is a field of computer science that deals with the problems of obtaining various images (drawings, drawings, animations) on a computer.

To create graphic images, special software is required – graphic packages.

The main areas of application of computer graphics: scientific graphics; business graphics; design graphics; illustrative graphics; artistic and advertising graphics.

Computer animation is the production of moving images on a display.

2) Applied software.

There are many application programs designed to work with graphics. Each section of computer graphics has its own programs. For example, for graphical processing of scientific data, the Grapher program is used; design engineers use the AutoCad package to prepare drawings; there are specialized business graphics packages designed to build charts that reflect all sorts of statistical data.

The name “Graphics editor” refers to application programs that do not have any specialized orientation and are used for “freehand drawing” or editing scanned images. In accordance with two principles of representation of graphic information – raster and vector – graphic editors are divided into raster and vector editors.

Among the simplest raster editors are Paint Brush and Paint (the second was the result of the development of the first). Raster editor Adobe Photoshop is used by professional designers. Most often it is used to edit scanned images (photos, reproductions of paintings), create artistic compositions, collages, etc.

For professional drawing on a computer, vector-type editors are used. The most famous of these is CorelDraw. This is a professional editor with rich features and at the same time quite suitable for artistic children’s creativity.

In the standard distribution of Windows in the “Standard” group there is a graphical editor Paint. Paint is a direct “relative” of the Paint Brush editor, which runs in the MS-DOS environment. In a basic computer science course, one of these editors is usually used for practical work with computer graphics. In a profile course in computer graphics, CorelDraw is more suitable for obtaining hand-drawn images. Note that professional graphic editors such as CorelDraw, Adobe Photoshop are quite expensive software products, and therefore not available to everyone.

The use of editors such as Paint in computer science lessons is quite enough, from the point of view of the educational goals facing the basic course. The raster editor allows you to visually demonstrate to students the discrete (pixel) structure of the picture, makes it possible to influence each individual element when zooming in the drawing mode.

Another useful educational element is the ability to demonstrate the mechanism of color mixing. To do this, in the main Paint menu, select [Palette] – [Change Palette] – [Define Palette]. The window that appears is a great tool for experimenting with color. The user can change the shades, contrast, brightness of the color and at the same time observe the GLC – the composition of the resulting paint. Having created his own paint, the user can include it in the palette on the corresponding editor panel.

The principle of raster drawing is to paint over each individual pixel of the picture. Raster editors are characterized by the presence of such tools as a brush, pencil, eraser. These tools are not available in vector editors. There, a drawing is created only by manipulating with graphic primitives: lines, arcs, ellipses, etc. These drawing elements can be changed at any time: compressed, stretched, inverted, moved, deleted. Raster editors also use graphical primitives. But their use is more like using rulers, lines, compasses and other drawing tools when drawing on paper. Once drawn such an element can no longer be changed. It can only be erased or edited by drawing.


Command system of the graphic editor.

In each of the modes listed above, the user can work with a certain set of GR commands, the totality of which makes up the system of commands for the graphic editor. In different graphics editors on different computers, the command systems can vary significantly. All variants are characterized by the use of the menu principle for selecting and initializing commands.

The command system includes:

– Tool selection commands;

– Tool settings commands (line width, letter font);

– Color selection commands;

– Drawing scaling commands;

– Commands for working with the clipboard (cut, copy, paste);

– Commands for manipulating the selected fragment (rotate, stretch, reflect);

– Commands for input / output of a picture to external devices.

The command menu is presented in the form of icons, as well as in text form.

It follows from the above list that any user action: tool selection, color selection, line drawing, erasing, etc. can be considered as a command executed in the corresponding mode. These commands form the algorithms of work in the editor environment. The teacher can communicate the rules for performing certain actions to students in the form of algorithms. Here are some examples of such algorithms. Focused on using the Paint editor.

Example 1. Algorithm for drawing a straight line using the Line tool.

1. Select a line color.

2. Select a line on the toolbar.

3. Select the line width.

4. Draw a line (the command consists of four steps).

4.1. Position the cursor at the starting point.

4.2. Press the left mouse button.

4.3. Drag the cursor to the end point.

4.4. Release the mouse button.

Example 2. Algorithm for transferring a fragment of a picture to a new location.

1. Select the Freehand Selection tool.

2. Select a fragment.

2.1. Set the cursor near the fragment.

2.2. Press the left mouse button.

2.3. Draw a selection line

2.4. Release the mouse button (a dotted rectangular cursor appears around the fragment).

3. Move the fragment to a new location.

3.1. Place the cursor inside the contour and press the left mouse button.

3.2. Drag the fragment to a new location.

3.3. release the mouse button.

The teacher himself can continue the description of such algorithms. An effective teaching technique is to ask students to describe in the form of an algorithm the performance of certain actions in a graphical editor.

4) Launching the Paint editor and shutting it down
The editor is launched using the Programs > Accessories > Paint command of the main Windows menu. Using the document-oriented style of work, you can start the Paint editor by opening any file with the .bmp extension in the standard way.
Before you finish working with the Paint editor, you should save the drawing created with it. And the very completion of the editor is performed as standard:
? using the keyboard shortcut Alt+F4;
? by double-clicking on the system menu button in the title bar of the editor window;
? the Close command of the editor’s system menu;
? command File > Exit operating menu editor

Structure of the Paint editor window
The Paint editor window, in which there is no drawing, is shown in Fig. 11.1. The name of the window consists of the name of the file in which the drawing is stored and the name of the application (Paint). If the picture does not yet exist or has not yet been saved to a disk device, the name Untitled is used. The Paint application window has no sub-windows, so the user can only work on one drawing at a time. The drawing area is always in the working area of the window. In addition, it may contain:
? drawing toolbar;
? color setting panel – palette;
? status bar;
? scrollbars.
? window status bar are:
? current hint sector;
? cursor pointer sector.

Rice. 11.1. Appearance of the Paint editor window
In general, the working area of the window can be considered as a kind of “artist’s set”, consisting of a sheet of paper (drawing area), on which he uses various tools: a pencil, ruler, compass, eraser, brushes (drawing toolbar) and a set of paints (palette) creates a drawing.

Graphic editor Paint

• For beginners, the Windows 95 operating system has a graphical editor Paint, with which you can learn the basic techniques of working with computer graphics and basic techniques for working with objects. However, the Paint editor is not only educational. It also acts as a basic graphic tool of the Windows 95 system. In cases where the system or its applications need to perform some operation with a graphic object (for example, viewing or editing), this editor is automatically loaded.

• The Paint graphics editor is launched by the command Start > Programs > Accessories > Paint graphics editor. After launch, the working window of the Paint program opens on the screen. It consists of several areas.

• The main part of the window is the work area. A drawing can occupy both part of the working area and its entirety, and even go beyond its limits. In the latter case, scrollbars will appear along the edges of the workspace. On the borders of the picture there are resizing markers (dark dots in the middle of the sides and at the corners of the picture).

• To the left of the workspace is the toolbar. It contains buttons for drawing tools. When you select a tool, a window may appear at the bottom of the panel for additional configuration of its properties.

• Below the workspace is the palette. It contains a set of colors that can be used when drawing. If the desired color is not in the palette, you can create it and replace it with any of the colors in the palette.

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