Artillery tasks and methods for their implementation

Artillery tactics

October 11, 2007

Artillery order of battle

To carry out tasks, artillery subunits and units are deployed in battle formation. The main elements of the combat formation of artillery units are firing positions and observation posts. For example, the battle formation of a battery consists of guns (mortars, combat vehicles) located at a firing position and observation posts.
Observation posts according to their purpose can be main, auxiliary (forward and side) and reserve. The area where the observation points are located is called the area of observation points.
A firing position is a piece of terrain occupied or prepared for occupation by guns, mortars, combat vehicles for firing.
According to their purpose, firing positions can be basic, temporary and reserve. In order to mislead the enemy, false observation posts and firing positions can be equipped.
Depending on the degree of cover from enemy ground observation, firing positions can be closed, half-closed, and open. An open firing position is intended for direct fire; In such a position, the materiel is not hidden from enemy ground observation or, being camouflaged, becomes visible when firing is opened. In a semi-closed firing position, the material part is hidden from enemy ground observation, but when firing, it reveals itself with the brilliance of shots, smoke and dust. A closed firing position covers the material part from ground observation of the enemy, and also hides the smoke, dust and glare of shots when firing.
Guns and mortars in a closed firing position are usually installed in the order of their numbers from right to left, taking into account the convenience of location and camouflage. The intervals between guns (mortars, combat vehicles) are 15-20 m, for guns of large and special power 60-150 m.
Traction means are located behind the firing position, to the right or left of it at a distance that provides communication with the guns and their quick supply to the guns. The limbers of the guns and the wheels of the mortars are located hidden in the firing positions.
An observation post is set up to monitor the approaches to firing positions, conduct radiation and chemical reconnaissance, and also provide timely notification of the appearance of enemy infantry, tanks, and aircraft.
Firing positions and observation posts are equipped in engineering terms and carefully camouflaged. At firing positions, firing sectors are cleared, trenches for guns, shelters for personnel and cellars for ammunition are arranged.
The combat formation of optical reconnaissance units includes observation posts, processing points and vehicle locations. From the observation posts, the battlefield is monitored and landmarks, benchmarks and targets are marked. At the processing point, the coordinates of points detected from observation points are determined.
The battle formation of sound reconnaissance subunits consists of sound posts, a central point, one or two warning posts, and a meteorological post. Sound posts are located at a distance of 1.5-4 km from the forward edge of friendly troops, at a distance of 1-1.5 km from one another. The warning post is located ahead of the sound posts. At the central point there is a recording device, a processing point and a communication center. The meteorological post carries out its work in the vicinity of the central point.

Artillery movement

During a march, artillery subunits may move independently or as part of columns of combined arms subunits and units. The division, when making a march, independently moves in a marching formation in a column. At the head of the column are division control units, then batteries and vehicles of service units.
The distances between cars (trains) are 25-50 m, between batteries – 100 m. On steep slopes, as well as when driving on dusty ground, during snowfall, sleet, the distances between cars (trains) increase, and when driving at night they decrease.
Units on mixed traction with different cruising speeds (caterpillar tractors, cars) in the march formation are divided into two or three columns in depth. The first column is made up of command and control units moving in vehicles, the second column is made up of fire platoons of batteries moving on tractor traction. The vehicles of the service units can follow in the second column or form the third column.
In anticipation of a collision with the enemy, the first column moves in leaps, not breaking away from the second at a distance set by the subunit commander in accordance with the situation.

Artillery tasks and methods for their implementation

Due to the large range of fire and the power of fire, artillery can perform very diverse fire missions, for example, suppress or destroy enemy manpower, fire weapons, artillery, tanks, self-propelled artillery installations and other types of enemy military equipment; destroy various defensive structures; forbid the enemy to maneuver, carry out defensive work or restore destroyed objects.
Suppression aims to bring the enemy into a state in which he temporarily loses combat capability or is deprived of the opportunity to maneuver. In order to suppress the enemy, it is necessary to achieve a certain degree of defeat, that is, to disable a certain part of his manpower and equipment. This defeat can be very different. As the experience of the war showed, in order to suppress the manpower and firepower of the enemy, it is necessary to inflict losses on them in a short time, amounting to 25-35%.
The destruction of the enemy consists in inflicting such a defeat on him, in which he completely loses his combat capability. When performing such a task, shells need to be spent much more than when suppressing the enemy.
To inflict a certain degree of defeat on the enemy, as well as for his moral shock, an appropriate density of suppression and the density of artillery fire is necessary.
Suppression density is commonly understood as the total number of projectiles expended per 1 hectare of the area on which the enemy is located. The density of artillery fire is the number of shells per 1 hectare of the target area or 100 m of its front in 1 minute. The higher the density of artillery fire, the more effective its action. You can refer to the fighting of rocket artillery during the Great Patriotic War. This artillery, firing in volleys, provided a high degree of destruction and moral shock to the enemy in a short time.
As a result of the generalization of combat experience and the research carried out, certain methods have been developed for performing various tasks of artillery. Let’s look at some of these methods.
The suppression of small groups of infantry (squads, platoons), the destruction of individual trenches with fire weapons, tanks, armored personnel carriers and the destruction of defensive structures is usually carried out by fire at individual targets from closed firing positions and direct fire.
When firing direct fire, the gun is aimed directly at the target, which increases the accuracy of fire and reduces the consumption of shells and time to complete the task. Practice has established that in the destruction of defensive structures by direct fire in conditions of limited visibility, an average of 20 shells is required to receive 1-2 hits. When destroying a moving tank, the most advantageous is shooting at a direct shot range, i.e., such shooting, in which the trajectory does not rise above the target throughout its entire length. The range of a direct shot is not the same for all guns. For example, when firing at tanks from howitzers, it is 600-700 m, and when firing from cannons – 900-1000 m and more.
Tanks located in the trenches, and defensive structures, in which the floor wall rises slightly above the ground (less than 1.5 m), are destroyed {destroyed} by shooting from closed firing positions. A direct hit is usually required to destroy a target. As a result, firing is carried out with methodical fire at a pace that allows you to observe each gap or control series. To destroy targets such as a tank in a trench, a dugout, or an armored cap, 1-3 direct hits are required. However, due to dispersion during firing, the total consumption of shells and mines, and, consequently, the time to complete the task, depending on the firing range, the size of the target, and the state of the gun (mortar) involved in the destruction, can be very significant. For example, to destroy a dugout when firing from a 122-mm howitzer at a distance of 2 km, 40 shells are required, and when firing at a distance of 5 km, 120 shells are required.
In conditions where it is not possible to observe each gap or control series of gaps, fire is carried out to hit the target at three sight settings and at one goniometer setting. With this method of destroying the target, the consumption of shells increases significantly. For example, when firing from a 122-mm howitzer at a distance of 2 km and with full preparation of the initial data, more than 150 shells are required to destroy the dugout.
In addition to fire on individual targets, the following types of fire can be used: concentrated fire (CO), sequential concentration of fire (PSO) and barrage fire.
When concentrating fire, several batteries or divisions simultaneously fire at one target or at a group of targets located in a limited area (area).
The density of enemy suppression by concentrated fire mainly depends on the nature of the targets, the caliber of the guns, the firing range, the size of the areas under fire, and the method of preparing the initial data. The nature of the suppressed targets most strongly affects the consumption of shells. For example, 20 122-mm shells per 1 ha may be sufficient to reliably suppress the observed openly located manpower. If the manpower is covered, then 100-200 shells per 1 hectare may be required to reliably suppress it.
Sequential concentration of fire can be used to suppress enemy manpower, fire weapons, and military equipment in the course of artillery support for tank and infantry offensives. With successive concentrations of fire, artillery successively transfers fire from one sector to another. Areas for suppressing the enemy in this case are outlined in front of the front and on the flanks of the advancing tanks and infantry.
In order to defeat the attacking enemy tanks and infantry, barrage fire can be used, which consists in creating a curtain of fire at the intended lines. Barrage fire can be mobile (PZO) and fixed (ISO). Mobile barrage fire is used to repel the advance of enemy tanks and infantry with the aim of inflicting defeat on them before approaching the front line of friendly troops. In the zone of a tank-hazardous direction, there may be several lines of mobile barrage fire. The nearest line is 300-400 meters from the front line of friendly troops. Stationary barrage fire is used to repel attacks and counterattacks by enemy infantry and tanks at the target line. The removal of the nearest line (section) of a fixed barrage from own infantry in shelters must be at least 200 m for rifled guns and 300 m for mortars; in the case of an open position of infantry – within 200-400 m (depending on the caliber, system of guns and the installation of the fuse). When firing rocket artillery, this distance should be at least 600 m.
The right to call barrage fire in front of their unit is granted to all commanders from the battalion (division) commander and above – when calling for a mobile barrage fire and from the company (battery) commander and above – when calling for a fixed barrage fire.
When performing tasks, artillery, depending on the situation, uses not only different types of fire, but also different firing orders, namely:
single fire guns (mortar);
methodical fire – fire indicating the number of shells per gun or mines per mortar and the rate of fire (the time interval between two successive shots);
fire in separate bursts of a battery (platoon) – each gun (mortar) of a battery or platoon fires one projectile at a rate of fire of one second shot;
rapid fire – fire conducted at maximum speed, but without violating the fire regime established for this system and not to the detriment of aiming accuracy, with or without indicating the number of shells per gun or mortar;
– fire in volleys – fire in which shots are fired simultaneously by all guns or mortars of a battery or platoon.
The tasks of artillery are set in accordance with its fire capabilities. Fire capabilities express the volume of tasks that can be performed by a certain composition of artillery in a corresponding specific situation.
The main factors determining the fire capabilities of artillery are: the nature of the task and the types of fire used; caliber and number of guns (mortars) involved in the task; mode of fire of guns and mortars; the amount of ammunition issued; the conditions under which the task is performed (time, firing range, method of preparing the initial settings for firing, conditions for monitoring the results of firing, etc.).
Under the mode of fire is understood the number of shots that can be fired from a given gun or mortar in a certain period of time. The mode of fire is determined by the possibility of using the material part of the gun without significant damage to it and the capabilities of the gun crew when firing.
Let’s see how the calculation of the fire capabilities of an artillery unit is carried out to conduct concentrated fire. Let us assume that a 12-gun battalion of 122-mm howitzers is involved in the suppression of the enemy’s sheltered manpower. The density of suppression is 150 shells per 1 ha (determined taking into account the nature of the target, the firing range and the method of preparing the initial data). The time to complete the task is 30 minutes. According to the technical regime, one howitzer in 30 minutes (in this particular situation) can fire 75 shots. It is required to determine the size of the area of the concentrated fire area that can be assigned to the division for suppression, i.e., to determine the fire capabilities of the division. We reason like this: a division can fire 900 shots (75 X 12) in 30 minutes; therefore, the area of the site that can suppress a division with the above density will be 6 hectares (900: 150).
The fire capabilities of artillery subunits when conducting barrage fire can be determined based on the length of the area assigned to one gun or mortar. The length of the area of fixed barrage fire is determined on the basis of 40-50 m per gun or mortar. The width of the mobile barrage area for an artillery unit is determined at the rate of 25 m per rifled gun. Mortar subunits of independent sectors do not receive mobile barrage fire, but fire overhead at the sectors of cannon and howitzer subunits; the width of the area for such units is determined in accordance with the norms of a fixed barrage.
Artillery control
Management of artillery subunits consists of preparing subunits for the fulfillment of their assigned tasks, organizing their combat operations, constantly directing artillery subunits and providing them with material support during the battle.
The commanders of rifle (tank) and artillery subunits manage their subordinate artillery subunits by setting tactical (combat) and fire missions, as well as by issuing commands.
When setting tactical tasks, an artillery unit is usually given the conditional names of local objects and landmarks; information about the enemy; combat mission of infantry and tanks; the task of the artillery unit and the main direction of fire; firing positions and observation posts; time of readiness to open fire; consumption, ammunition. The main direction of fire, as a rule, is indicated by the senior artillery commander with a directional angle rounded to 1-00. In preparation for firing, the guns and instruments located at the observation post are oriented in a given main direction. Subsequently, the main direction is used for target designation and for issuing commands to turn the guns in the direction of the target.
Guns that perform the task of direct fire are assigned the main and additional sectors of fire. The boundaries of the firing sector are established according to local objects or are indicated by specially set landmarks. Within the specified sector of fire, the gun must always be ready to open fire.
One of the most important measures for the management of artillery subunits is artillery fire control, which includes: preparation of fire or preliminary preparation of firing, determination of means and methods for fulfilling the assigned fire mission, setting fire missions for artillery subunits and monitoring their implementation.
When determining the means and methods for fulfilling a fire mission, the number of subunits involved, the consumption of ammunition, and the method for solving the fire mission (type and order of firing, duration of firing at a target, etc.) are established. The order of setting fire missions, depending on the chosen means and methods, can be very different. For example, to suppress a target, an artillery unit needs to indicate: the nature of the target and its number, the coordinates of the center of the target, the front and depth of the target in meters, the consumption of shells and the duration of firing, the time of opening fire (readiness).
Fire control is usually carried out from observation posts, where, in addition to the commander of an artillery unit, there may be commanders of command and control units, reconnaissance observers, computers and signalmen.
For the convenience of fire control, improvised subunits are assigned. For example, a division commander can assign one of his subordinate batteries as an assistant. In this case, the observation post of the commander of the battery at hand should be located next to the observation post of the battalion commander at a distance that allows the transfer of target designation and commands of the battalion commander by voice.
A very significant measure in the management of artillery units is the organization and implementation of the interaction of artillery with infantry and tanks. At the same time, the fire and movement of artillery subunits must be coordinated in terms of purpose, time and place with the fire and maneuver of infantry and tanks, and their constant mutual assistance in battle must also be ensured.
The interaction of artillery with infantry and tanks is organized by the commanders of rifle (tank) subunits and carried out by the commanders of artillery subunits.
Artillery commanders, first of all, should be involved in organizing interaction by the commanders of rifle and tank subunits, who indicate to the commanders of artillery subunits the tasks of infantry and tanks and the procedure for their actions, as well as establish a unified orientation system, target designation methods, signals for calling, transferring and ceasefire and to mark the lines reached by infantry and tanks. The most common targeting methods are: pointing the device at the target, from a landmark (local object), in rectangular coordinates, shell bursts, as well as missiles or tracer bullets (shells). In order to ensure stable interaction, it is advisable for the commanders of artillery and rifle subunits to be deployed at observation posts together.
When interacting during a battle, artillery commanders must ensure timely impact of artillery fire on the most important targets at the moment, without waiting for the demands of the commanders of rifle and tank subunits. In order to constantly know the situation and position of their infantry and tanks, the commanders of rifle (tank) and artillery subunits continuously conduct reconnaissance and exchange information received. The presence of uninterrupted communications is one of the most important conditions for ensuring the continuous interaction of artillery with infantry and tanks.

The procedure for giving target designation

Target designation methods The work of the giver of target designation Examples
Target designation aiming the device at the target Points the crosshair of the device at the target and indicates to the recipient the signs “Machine gun under a bush – suppress”
Target designation from a landmark (local item) Determines and transmits to the recipient: 1) the horizontal angle between the target and the nearest reference point to it (“to the right (left) so much”); 2) the difference between the distance to the target and the landmark (“farther (closer) so much”) or, if the recipient of the target designation is at the same point, the angular excess of the target over the landmark in divisions (“higher (lower) so much”) 1. “Landmark three. Right 20, closer than 300, anti-tank gun on the southern edge of the grove – suppress”; 2. “landmark five, right 30, above 3, machine gun in the yellow trench – suppress”
Target designation in rectangular coordinates Determines the coordinates of the target from the map (scheme, aerial photograph) and transmits them to the receiver “X 47500, y 38500 enemy machine gun – suppress”
Target designation of shell burst (min) Indicates the area in which it is necessary to observe the gaps, warns the receiver about the opening of fire and gives the command to open fire. When targeting with bursts of high-explosive fragmentation shells, the battery fires 2-4 shots with quick fire of a gun or mortar or a volley of batteries; target designation by bursts of smoke shells is carried out by single shots “The hollow is “narrow”, in the area of a smoke mine rupture, the accumulation of infantry is to be suppressed.” Then the target designator gives commands to the aiming battery and warns the receiver “Shot”
Target designation by missiles and tracer bullets (shells) At the target they give short machine-gun bursts with tracer bullets (1-2 shots with tracer shells) or fire 2-3 rockets in the direction of the target. The order of queues and the color of the rockets are set in advance Observer’s report (example): “Landmark three, left 15, fall of tracks near the destroyed house”

Notes: I. The receiver, having accepted the target designation, reports: “I see the target”, if he has found the target on the ground; “I don’t see the target” if the target is not visible to him, but he has clarified its location; “Target misunderstood” if he did not understand the location of the target.
2. If the observation ranges of the giving and receiving target designation differ significantly from one another, multiply the angle between the target and the reference point by the removal factor (the ratio of the observation ranges from the points of giving and receiving target designation). The removal factor is calculated by the formula

Ku u003d Dd / Dp

where Dd is the distance to the landmark from the one giving target designation;
Dp is the distance to the landmark from the receiving target designation.

SHOOTING ARTILLERY
Pre-shooting preparation

The successful fulfillment of fire missions by artillery largely depends on the preliminary preparation of firing. The main measures for the preliminary preparation of artillery firing are: reconnaissance of targets and study of the terrain in the enemy’s disposition; preparation of instruments, guns and ammunition; clarification or selection of landmarks; determining the location of targets, firing positions and observation posts of own artillery, orienting guns and instruments in the main direction; determination of ballistic and meteorological conditions of firing; determination and refinement of the initial data for shooting.
Artillery reconnaissance is conducted from ground observation posts by officers and personnel of command and control units of artillery units, artillery fire, special artillery reconnaissance units, pilot-observers of corrective reconnaissance aviation and artillery reconnaissance groups.
During the preparation of tools and instruments, the serviceability of the material part is checked, and various mechanisms are reconciled and adjusted. At the firing position, before firing, sighting devices are checked. Ammunition is brought to the firing positions, where it is wiped from grease and dust and sorted into batches and weight signs. For the preparation of ammunition for firing at the firing position, a special place is allocated, no closer than 50 m from the gun trenches.
Determining the location of targets, firing positions and observation posts, as well as orienting guns and instruments in the main direction, is the main task of topographic preparation in artillery. Topographic preparation, depending on the situation and methods of its implementation, can be carried out on a complete topographic (geodesic) basis or on a map (aerial photograph). The most accurate is the preparation on a full topographical basis, but its production requires much more time and money.
When taking into account the ballistic conditions of firing, the deviation of the initial velocity is determined, associated with the wear of the gun barrels, the features of gunpowder in different batches of charges, as well as the deviation of the weight of the projectile from the table and the features of the shells themselves (type of fuse, the presence or absence of coloring of the shell bodies, etc.). ). Determining the deviation of the initial speed of the guns associated with the wear of the barrels is usually done by measuring the length of the charging chamber. If there is no data on the quality of the charges, it is necessary to shoot or shoot shells of different batches.
The meteorological conditions of firing are determined according to the data of meteorological bulletins, which are compiled by subdivisions of the artillery meteorological service. In the absence of bulletins, meteorological conditions are taken into account approximately or based on the results of previous shootings.
Preparation of initial data for firing includes: determination of topographic data (distance from the gun to the target, elevation angle of the target and direction to the target); selection of the type of trajectory, projectile, installation of a fuse and a fan (intervals between bursts of shells of neighboring guns); charge selection; introduction of corrections for the deviation of ballistic and meteorological conditions of firing from the tabular ones; determination of the initial settings of the main gun – sight, fuse, level, reversal from the main direction (firing compass, protractor, angle of fire transfer from the benchmark or sighted target).
Depending on the conditions of the situation and the procedure for making calculations, the preparation of initial data can be complete, abbreviated, and visual.
With full preparation, the coordinates of the main gun are determined by referencing on a topographic basis or with the help of instruments to the contour points of a map (aerial photograph) reliably identified on the ground at a scale of at least 1: 50,000. Guns and instruments are most accurately oriented in the main direction. All necessary corrections for ballistic and meteorological conditions of firing are introduced.
The coordinates of the targets are determined using a range finder, from an aerial photograph, a notch from the points of conjugated observation and other means of artillery reconnaissance.
Due to the high accuracy of the calculations, full preparation itself is one of the ways to determine the settings for shooting to kill. In addition, it ensures the suddenness of the opening of fire.
With reduced preparation, topographic data is determined from a map (aerial photograph, tablet). The points of a firing position, an observation post, and a target can be plotted on the map by means of visual surveying. Corrections for ballistic and meteorological conditions of firing are taken from the graph of calculated corrections or approximately.
Visual preparation of initial data is used in conditions when it is not possible to use a map or rangefinder to determine the position of the target, and also in the absence of sufficient information about the position of the firing position. Corrections for ballistic and meteorological conditions of firing are not taken into account or are taken into account approximately. Eye preparation is performed by calculation or graphic method.

Let us consider the procedure for preparing the initial data in a graphical way (Fig. 22) under conditions when firing is carried out at a small and medium displacement with
closed firing position (offset correction less than 5-00).
a) Work on the ground:
– orient the periscope artillery compass (stereo tube) in
the main direction of fire;
– measure the angle between the main direction and the direction to the firing position;
– determine the size of the base (distance from the commander to the firing position
in meters);
– measure the angle between the main direction and the direction of the target to
determine the range commander – target.
b) Work on a sheet of paper:
– mark the point of the observation point (K) and draw a straight line from it,
which will be the main direction line (KN);
– at point K, construct the LCO angle (the angle between the main direction and
direction to the firing position);
– from point K set aside in the direction of the firing position in an arbitrary
the taken scale value of the base (B);
– at the point K., construct the angle of the NCC (the angle between the main direction and the direction to the target);
– to postpone on the line of observation (on the line commander – target) in the accepted scale the distance from the observation point to the target (Dk});
– connect the point O with the point C and, having measured the segment OZ, determine the range of the weapon – the target (db);
– from point O draw a line of the main direction (ON);
– measure the angle of the gun’s rotation from the main direction to the target – the angle of the REC;
– determine the removal factor (Ku) by the formula

Ku u003d Dk / dB
if Ku is less than 0.3, then it is calculated with an accuracy of 0.05;
– determine the offset correction (PS) by measuring the BCC angle for this,
– calculate the step of the goniometer (R / g /), corresponding to a change in range by 100 m, according to the formula

Shu u003d PS / 0.01 dB

Shu is defined with an accuracy of 0-01.
In a combat situation, the shooter may find himself in conditions that preclude the possibility of preparing the initial data by the indicated methods. At the same time, an immediate opening of fire will be required. In such cases, the preparation of the initial data for firing is carried out approximately, namely: the distance from the firing position to the target is determined by eye and the sight is assigned in such a way as to protect their troops from defeat; the direction is commanded according to the compass of the target, determined from the observation post without taking into account the correction for displacement or; and with its approximate accounting. The removal factor and goniometer step are also determined approximately and further refined by shooting,

Zeroing

None of the above methods of preparing initial data excludes random errors in determining the range and direction of fire. In this regard, on installations obtained as a result of preparing the initial data, the average trajectory will not always pass through the target. In order to combine the average trajectory with the target, zeroing is performed.
Zeroing consists in finding by firing installations suitable for shooting at a target by determining the deviation of breaks and introducing corrections into the installation of sighting devices based on these deviations. Depending on the situation and conditions of observation, they shoot either directly at the target, or at the benchmark for the subsequent transfer of fire from it to the target.
Two types of zeroing are used: zeroing by observing signs of breaks and zeroing by measured deviations.
When zeroing in, by observing the signs of breaks , only the angular deviation (Fig. 23) and the sign of the break, i.e. overshoot or undershoot (Fig. 24), are determined, without measuring the magnitude of linear deviations.
This type of sighting can only be used on observed targets. The organization of zeroing to observe the signs of breaks is simple. It is made from one observation point using binoculars or other angle measuring instruments. Therefore, zeroing in on the observation of signs of breaks can be used in any case of a combat situation.

When zeroing in on the measured deviations, the magnitudes of the deviations of the gaps from the target in the range (Fig. 25) and in the lateral direction are determined, and on the basis of this, corrections are introduced into the settings of the sighting devices. For zeroing in on ‘measured deviations, fewer projectiles are required than for zeroing in on the observation of marks of breaking; this is especially important when firing large caliber projectiles. However, this type of sighting requires special preliminary preparation and the use of various technical means, for example, a sound measuring station, a range finder, stereo tubes located at two observation posts, etc.
Both types of shooting, depending on the situation, can be carried out in different ways.

Let’s consider an approximate zeroing procedure for observing the signs of breaks by locking the target into a fork at a small and medium displacement.
At the beginning of the sighting, breaks are brought to the line of observation (line commander – target). To do this, measure the deviation of the gap from the target, multiply it by the removal factor (Ku) and command a turn towards the target: example: Ku = 0.6; deviation of the first gap from the target to the right by 0-20 (P20); In order to bring the projectile to the line of observation, it is necessary to turn the gun to the left by 0-12 (20-0.6 = 12).
Having received observation in range (plus, i.e. flight, or minus, i.e. undershoot), change the sight setting in jumps of several divisions towards the target until they receive a sign opposite to that which was received first. Obtaining undershot and overshoot in the process of shooting is the capture of the target in the fork. The sight settings at which the overshoot and undershoot are obtained are usually called the limits of the fork. The difference in the sight settings at which the fork was obtained, or the distance in meters between its limits, is called the width of the fork.
The width of the first fork, depending on the method of preparing the initial data, is taken equal to one to four narrow forks. A narrow fork is taken equal to two sight divisions (100 m), and with Vd (probable range deviation) equal to 40 m or more, four sight divisions (200 m).
Having captured the target in the first (wide) fork, by successively halving it, they look for a narrow fork.

Be First to Comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.