Artificial intelligence and human mind


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Artificial intelligence and human mind

Artificial intelligence is not magic or science fiction, but a fusion of the methods of science, technology and mathematics.

The history of artificial intelligence as a new scientific direction begins in the middle of the 20th century. By this time, many prerequisites for its origin had already been formed: among philosophers there had long been disputes about the nature of man and the process of knowing the world, neurophysiologists and psychologists developed a number of theories regarding the work of the human brain and thinking, economists and mathematicians asked questions of optimal calculations and representation of knowledge about the world in formalized form; finally, the foundation of the mathematical theory of computation—the theory of algorithms—was born, and the first computers were created.

In 1950, one of the pioneers in the field of computer technology, the English scientist Alan Turing, wrote an article entitled “Can a machine think?” , which describes a procedure by which it will be possible to determine the moment when a machine becomes equal in terms of intelligence with a person, called the Turing test. The test involves a human, a computer and a judge. All test participants do not see each other. Both the computer and the person receive questions in the form of sentences, and the judge, after analyzing their answers, must determine which of them belongs to the person and which belongs to the computer. The function of the program embedded in the computer is to create answers to the questions of the judge that are close to the answers of a person, that is, to complicate the work of the judge in determining the difference between a machine and a person. For example, the task is given to write a poem about the sky or add the numbers 34957 and 70764. If the judge cannot distinguish between the answers of a person and a computer, then a computer program, consciously and willfully embedded in the computer by the human mind, means that it showed significant features of artificial intelligence. In 1956, the prominent American computer scientist John McCarthy coined the term “artificial intelligence”. Many philosophers and religious figures of the West spoke out against such a name. Criticism and discussion of supporters of “for” and “against” did not stop until one of the opponents of the term “artificial intelligence”, philosopher Hubert Dreyfus, lost a game of chess with a computer, where a chess game program based on the logic of artificial intelligence was recorded. Despite the fact that philosophical and sociological discussions continue today, the center of their gravity has shifted towards the question “how can artificial intelligence technologies be used in everyday life?”.
At first, artificial intelligence research was limited to solving simple problems, such as proving mathematical theorems, inequality equations, and logical inferences. In the 1960s, the machine translation project based on artificial intelligence logic failed for reasons such as abbreviations in colloquial speech, the ambiguity of words depending on the place, time and persons to whom they are addressed. In subsequent years, research on artificial intelligence has marked great progress. The Deep Blue computer system, developed in 1997 with artificial intelligence features, managed to beat Garry Kasparov, who held the title of world chess champion for 12 years, in the second match. It should not be forgotten that the above program was developed only for playing chess, unlike Kasparov, who is “programmed” to perform hundreds of different operations. It is known that in our time, artificial intelligence systems are used in critical situations, military projects that require quick making the right decisions, as well as in the processing of large amounts of information. However, artificial intelligence is currently insufficient for the implementation of human mental functions at a low level, for example, in recognizing everyday speech and understanding simple stories.

The definition of artificial intelligence cited in the preamble by John McCarthy in 1956 at a conference at Dartmouth University is not directly related to understanding human intelligence. According to McCarthy, AI researchers are free to use methods that are not observed in humans if it is necessary to solve specific problems.

Explaining his definition, John McCarthy points out: “The problem is that we cannot yet generally define what computational procedures we want to call intelligent. We understand some of the mechanisms of intelligence and do not understand others. Therefore, intelligence within this science is understood only as the computational component of the ability to achieve goals in the world.

As the chairman of the St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Association of Artificial Intelligence T. A. Gavrilova points out, in English the phrase artificial intelligence does not have that slightly fantastic anthropomorphic coloring that it acquired in a rather unsuccessful Russian translation. The word intelligence means “the ability to reason reasonably”, and not at all “intelligence”, for which there is an English equivalent intellect .

According to McCarthy, a normal human mental action is a synthesis of many smaller operations performed by our brain in response to the environment, and, most importantly, this procedure, according to the participants of the Dartmouth Conference, can be imitated. The main difficulty, or rather, the main condition of all such operations, according to McCarthy, is that any calculation, if we are talking about a machine, or, speaking in general, any movement, transformation of information takes place in a changeable unpredictable environment.

In general, a machine or a person can only adapt or operate in a limited number of external environments. Even the human brain, being a complex system, first adapts to simple aspects of its environment and gradually gains experience in solving more complex problems. I propose to study how the synthesis of brain models occurs, resulting from the parallel development of a number of external environments and the corresponding brain models that adapt to them.

Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX, called artificial intelligence a threat to humanity, and now Stephen Hawking has done the same after him. Hawking, the famous physicist and author of popular science books, in an interview with the BBC expressed the opinion that “the development of a full-fledged artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.”
Today, according to Hawking, artificial intelligence does not yet pose any threat, but in the future, scientists can create a technique that can surpass people both in terms of intellectual power and physical strength.
“Such a machine will begin to live its own life and improve itself at an ever faster pace,” Hawking believes. “People whose development is limited by the pace of biological evolution, being unable to compete with such a system, will be lagging behind.”

Hawking’s remarks are being compared to those of Musk, who warned at the end of October at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology about the dangers lurking in artificial intelligence research. “I think you have to be very careful with artificial intelligence,” Musk, CEO of Tesla Motors, an electric vehicle company, and SpaceX, a commercial spaceflight company, said at the time. — If you asked me what is the most serious threat to the existence of mankind, then, probably, this is just artificial intelligence. By developing it, we call a demon. In all stories of this kind, the hero, drawing a pentagram and armed with holy water, is sure that he will be able to control the demon, but it turns out that this is not so. Musk tweeted over the summer that artificial intelligence is “probably even more dangerous than nuclear weapons,” and speaking at MIT, he said that the development of such systems should be carried out under strict state and international control. Musk’s remarks provoked a heated debate about artificial intelligence, although today its level is only sufficient for robotic vacuum cleaners, but not yet terminators that take over the world.

Yasser Abu-Mostafa, a professor of electronic engineering and computer science at the California Institute of Technology, expressed bewilderment at the talk about the dangers of artificial intelligence that has already begun, although no frightening technologies have yet been developed. “In the field of artificial intelligence, there is no serious progress that would give cause for concern,” the scientist noted. “It’s just that the rapid development of certain technologies, like cell phones, along with their general availability, seems to give people reason to believe in science fiction prophecies.” Musk and Hawking, of course, are far from ordinary representatives of humanity, but the scientist does not agree with them: “I am not worried – not only because it is probably decades before the creation of high-level machine intelligence, but also because I am sure that we we can control it when we create it. To give an analogy with nuclear weapons, just because we have the physical ability to destroy the entire world in a matter of minutes doesn’t mean it will happen. We have provided means that do not allow this to be done.

Some scientists still do not exclude the possibility of artificial intelligence getting out of human control over time, but they believe that such technologies will appear only in 50-100 years, during which time it is quite possible to prepare protective measures.

“In fact, I think that such fears may be justified, and the very possibility of creating artificial intelligence that surpasses humans is very interesting,” said Andrew Moore, dean of the computer science department at Carnegie Mellon University. – This is a danger that can be realized only in the distant future, but sooner or later we will have to think about it. As soon as we start to get closer to creating powerful superintelligent machines, it will no doubt be necessary to stop and think about what we are doing.”
Stuart Russell, a professor of electronic engineering and computer science at the University of California, Berkeley, admitted that he considers future artificial intelligence systems dangerous, and therefore he is already organizing scientific discussions devoted to discussing this danger. In his opinion, it is necessary to think about this problem now – before the researchers are able to create the machines themselves.

And a lot of articles have been written about the human mind. The human mind has been discussed by philosophers and writers since ancient times. How the human mind actually works has been debated for centuries.

In Dahl’s dictionary, mind is defined as a spiritual force that can remember (comprehend, cognize), promise (think, apply, compare) and conclude (decide, infer consequences), the ability to correctly, consistently link thoughts, from its cause, its consequences to the goal, the end . The social sciences define the mind as a creative cognitive activity that reveals the essence of reality; knowledge.

For Brockhaus and Efron, reason in the philosophical sense is the highest, essential for a person, as such, the ability to think; universal understanding: reason is the ability of abstraction and generalization, which includes reason. Reason, in turn, is defined as the ability to think and know in terms of things and their relations: understanding, which is the result of reasoning. Social sciences define reason as the ability to strictly operate with concepts, correctly classify facts and phenomena, bring knowledge into a certain system; thinking. Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that the mind is the ability of a person to operate with data, correctly classify them and make decisions based on this. The more correct decisions are made, the more reasonable a person is considered. But what is the criterion for the right decisions?

How can you determine whether a person acted reasonably or not? Would it be wise to destroy the built house? If the house is not suitable for habitation and they are going to build a new, more comfortable one in its place, then such destruction will be justified. Otherwise, it will most likely not be reasonable. It is also possible to destroy human relationships, relationships in the family, the image of a person, etc. Why is this happening? This can be seen with a simple example. Suppose a person grew up in an environment where it is considered normal to kill their own kind, destroy something that was created by others, destroy someone’s reputation in order to achieve some of their dubious goals. The mind of such a person will be set to destruction. Will it be survival for him or his entourage? Most probably not. The less destructive purposes will include the mind, the more pure it will be. It will contain many creative goals that contribute to the survival of the person himself, the people around him and society as a whole.

If we look around, it becomes clear that in today’s society destructive goals prevail at the moment. The human mind justifies this. We can often hear explanations for this: “Everyone does it this way.” The question is: can something be done about it? Do I need to do something about it? The answer to this can be found if we consider an abstract enterprise.

. The human mind can be compared to the work of a huge computer. But only he can solve problems of much higher complexity and accuracy if he does not have destructive goals. What can contribute to this? For example, a person’s faith.

In Dahl’s dictionary, it is defined as confidence, conviction, firm consciousness, the concept of something, especially in higher, immaterial, spiritual subjects; belief, the absence of any doubt or hesitation about the existence and essence of God, the unconditional recognition of the truths revealed by God. Based on this, it becomes clear that if a person was created for destruction, his mind would initially have only destructive goals. In this case, we would hardly all be able to survive to this day – everything would have been destroyed long ago. Therefore, when a person has faith, his mind is filled with creative goals and he strives to survive himself as a person, and also helps his environment to survive. All this is achieved thanks to his will, which in Dahl’s dictionary is defined as the arbitrariness of actions given to a person; freedom, scope in actions; lack of bondage, rape, coercion; creative activity of the mind.

Based on the foregoing, the following conclusions can be drawn. The human mind is a mechanism that allows you to set tasks, classify data and make decisions based on it. Initially, the mind sets creative goals and the less destructive goals it has, the more pure the mind is. With the help of faith, the mind can determine the criterion for the correctness of actions. And it becomes clear that the spiritual nature of a person controls his mind, so a person is not an animal. In order to adhere to the right chosen course of action in one’s life, the work of the mind is facilitated by the will of a person, his freedom in choosing actions and the ability to choose the goals of activity. Each person has the right to choose which way to go in life. That’s why he has a mind.

In conclusion, I would like to say. A person has a spiritual side that cannot be measured by material standards, moral qualities, willpower and consciousness, which he uses when making decisions. They do not allow us to simplify the understanding of the human essence to the level of only the intellect and mental functions. They prevent us from identifying it only with mental functions and the mind. It is undeniable that a man is different from a machine. When a person makes his choice, he connects external variables with his will and consciousness, and thereby introduces an element of subjectivity into his decision. And the latest technologies supported by artificial intelligence systems are content only with what was introduced into them by the developers. At the same time, they are flexible and perfect only within the latest achievements of computer science. Therefore, such properties of computer programs or technological systems with artificial intelligence, such as choosing or making the right decision, are decisions that are made only within the algorithms written by their programmer.

Despite the simplicity of the problems solved by artificial intelligence devices, the efforts, means and labor expended on these studies reminded us of the following two truths: human mental activity, for example, learning new things, thinking and making decisions are carried out according to a certain plan and a predetermined program. ; man is incomparable in his creation.

List of used literature

1. Dal V.I. Explanatory dictionary of the living Great Russian language : In 4 volumes – St. Petersburg, 1863-1866.

2. Potapov A.S. Artificial intelligence technologies – St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University ITMO, 2010. – 218 p.

3. Kozlov, A.N. Intelligent information systems: textbook / A.N. Kozlov; Min. RF, FGBOU VPO Perm State Agricultural Academy. – Perm: Publishing House of FGBOU VPO Perm State Agricultural Academy, 2013. – 278 p. ISBN978-5-94279-176-6

4. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron. – St. Petersburg, 1890-1907.



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