Approximate form of a diary of practical exercises

I. S. Kruzhilina,

director of St. Petersburg Medical School No. 9, teacher and administrator of the highest category.

Koshelev A. A.

Emergency Medicine. Theory and practice: Proc. allowance. – St. Petersburg: “ELBI-SPb”, 2005. – 320 p.

ISBN 5-93979-152-2

The manual was compiled in accordance with the program of the course “Medicine of Disasters” for educational institutions of secondary vocational education in the specialty “Nursing” and is provided with algorithms of actions, diagrams, tables, plans for each lesson, tests and situational tasks with answers for initial, current and final control level of knowledge. Attention is paid to the nursing process in providing assistance to victims.

The book is intended for students of medical schools, colleges, students of advanced training courses for paramedical workers, for paramedical workers in practical healthcare, ambulance and emergency care, teachers of disaster medicine, and can also be used in the medical training of professional rescuers.

O Koshelev A. A., 2005
ISBN 5-93979-152-2 © ELBI-SPb, 2005


The Disaster Medicine Practice Guide is the second revised and expanded edition to prepare paramedics for emergency situations.

The educational material is presented in accordance with the program of the course “Medicine of Disasters” for educational institutions of secondary vocational education in the specialty “Nursing” (Moscow, VUNMTS, 2002).

The main emphasis in practical exercises is on the pre-hospital stage and the provision of first aid in cases where the nurse is one on one with the victim and must independently make the only right decision to save a person’s life in extreme conditions.

Each practical lesson provides not only the basic theoretical information necessary for learning, but also action algorithms, diagrams, tables, which greatly facilitate the assimilation of educational material.

The manual contains examples of test tasks of varying degrees of complexity, situational tasks with solutions, individual tasks for students. The sequence of actions of a nurse when performing manipulations to provide assistance and care for the victim is described in detail.

Much attention is paid to the nursing process and nursing diagnosis, which helps in difficult practical situations to highlight the priority problems of the victims and find ways to solve them.

The guide can be recommended for medical schools, colleges, advanced training schools for paramedical workers, paramedical workers in practical health care, ambulance and emergency medicine, teachers of disaster medicine. The manual can also be used in the medical training of professional rescuers.





This manual covers almost all the topics covered by the Disaster Medicine course curriculum. The manual is not the only and absolutely correct model for building the educational process, but only allows students to get systematized and concentrated knowledge in one block. For teachers, the manual is an option for creating methodological material. The choice of the sequence of presentation of topics, the construction of the lesson can be different and depend on the goals that the teacher is trying to achieve. The place of practical training can be a clinical base, specifically the medical department where thematic patients are concentrated, or an equipped preclinical room.

My own experience of teaching disaster medicine showed that despite the fact that students study courses in surgery with the basics of resuscitation, pharmacology, internal and pediatric diseases, many of the topics of these courses, which are simultaneously covered in our classes, were not sufficiently mastered by them. Therefore, it is necessary to repeat and deepen the knowledge, skills and abilities already acquired in the study of related academic disciplines. At practical classes in disaster medicine, the emphasis is on a more in-depth mastering of the methods of providing first aid at the prehospital stage and in extreme conditions, when the average health worker is alone with the victim or with a large number of victims.

The main goal of practical training in the course “Medicine of Disasters” is to teach students to recognize emergency conditions, determine the severity of the lesion and make an independent and correct decision to provide assistance. Even when the paramedic cannot

to accurately determine the existing lesion, he must be able, using the scheme of the nursing process, to highlight the priority problems of the victim (life-threatening syndromes) and independently solve them as soon as possible.

At each practical lesson, it is advisable to give each student a specific task on the nursing process in an extreme situation and ask him to justify his decision.

When defending his decision, the student must not only list the activities for each item, but also explain in what ways the goal can be achieved.

An exemplary scheme of the nursing process in an extreme situation is presented in Scheme 1.



Scheme 1. (End)

At the practical lesson, each student keeps a diary, which reflects in detail the topic and objectives of the lesson, the levels of assimilation, the lesson plan, notes all independently completed tasks and manipulations, enters into the diary the main schemes and algorithms of actions in specific conditions. Keeping such a diary helps the student to systematize and comprehend the knowledge gained in the lesson and to better absorb the information. Using the student’s diary, the teacher can objectively evaluate the work of each student in the class and the level of mastering the material.

Approximate form of a diary of practical exercises

Lesson topic and objectives Lesson Plan Assessments in class Final
the date initial control current control manipulation assessment and signature of the teacher

In the diary, the student should reflect:

– the content of the lesson;

— algorithms, schemes, individual tasks, etc.;

– performed manipulations (what and how many times). Here’s what a lesson plan might look like:

1. Control of the initial level of knowledge, checking homework.

2. Explanation by the teacher and working out in small groups and individually of the questions of the topic being studied.

3. Current control of the assimilation of the material during the lesson.

4. Generalization of the material covered, final control, clarification of typical errors and their correction.

5. Drawing up a report by students on independent work, receiving homework on the next topic of the practical lesson, setting the final grade and signing the diaries by the teacher.

During the lesson, students should work actively and creatively. To do this, it is necessary to involve them not only in practical work with patients and educational material, but also in solving situational problems and tests, performing individual tasks with solving the problems of victims during the entire study time. The guide offers options for such tasks for the initial, current and final control of knowledge.

The final grade at the practical lesson consists of the results of solving all tasks, the student’s ability to perform the necessary manipulations, his activity, appearance and deontological behavior corresponding to the profession, the presence and correctness of keeping a diary.

When evaluating the solution of test tasks, one should proceed from generally accepted criteria:

up to 10% of incorrect answers – “5”;

up to 20% of incorrect answers – “4”;

up to 30% of incorrect answers – “3”;

more than 30% of incorrect answers – “2”.


When solving situational problems, first of all, the student’s ability to determine an emergency condition or highlight the priority problems of patients, that is, his knowledge of the nursing process, is assessed. The second thing a student should know is the activities and the sequence of their implementation when providing first aid. In solving the problem, the goals of performing each manipulation, each action should be clearly stated.

With a successful answer to all the questions posed, “5” is put. If the student was unable to determine the emergency or priority problem of the victim – “2”.

All other answers are evaluated individually with 3-4 points.

During practical work in departments with patients, each student must receive an individual task and make a report on it at the end of the lesson. The purpose of the individual task is to actively study all stages of the patient’s treatment and the ability to determine their specific features in the basic medical institution.

The student should be able to independently assess whether the nursing process is set up correctly when caring for a patient, see the shortcomings and discuss their comments and suggestions in the study group. When giving students individual tasks, the teacher should emphasize the need to comply with deontological principles when working with patients and medical staff.

During the work of students in departments, procedural, dressing rooms, the teacher must constantly monitor the implementation of manipulations, compliance with the sanitary and epidemiological regime, and deontology. In the course of the work, it is necessary to explain to students the reasons for the mistakes made, to conduct a survey on the meaning and goals of the manipulations and other interventions they perform. The most serious problems should be discussed in the study group at the end of the session.

Classes should be provided with didactic material, handouts for each student with whom he could work.

A good help for the teacher is the technological map of the lesson, which allows you to fully track the progress of the lesson and control the learning situation every minute.


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