Analysis of the poem (speech cliché)

Plan for parsing a lyric poem

1. Date of writing.
2. Real-biographical and factual commentary.
3. Genre originality.
4. Idea content:
5. Leading theme.
6. Main idea.
7. Emotional coloring of feelings expressed in a poem in their dynamics or statics.
8. External impression and internal reaction to it.
9. The predominance of public or private intonations.
10. The structure of the poem. Comparison and development of the main verbal images by similarity, by contrast, by contiguity, by association, by inference.
11. The main figurative means of allegory used by the author (metaphor, metonymy, comparison, allegory, symbol, hyperbole, litote, irony (as a trope), sarcasm, paraphrase).
12. Speech features in terms of intonational-syntactic figures (repetition, antithesis, inversion, ellipse, parallelism, rhetorical question, appeal and exclamation).
13. The main features of rhythm (tonic, syllabic, syllabo-tonic, dolnik, free verse; iambic, trochee, pyrrhic, spondeus, dactyl, amphibrach, anapaest).
14. Rhyme (masculine, feminine, dactylic, exact, inaccurate, rich; simple, compound) and rhyming methods (pair, cross, ring), rhyme game.
15. Strophic (double-line, three-line, five-line, quatrain, sextine, seventh, octave, sonnet, “Onegin” stanza).
16. Euphony (euphony) and sound recording (alliteration, assonance), other types of sound instrumentation.

Poem analysis plan

1. What mood becomes decisive for the poem as a whole. Do the author’s feelings change throughout the poem, and if so, thanks to what words do we guess about it.
2. Is there a conflict in the poem, to determine the conflict, identify words from the poem that can be conditionally called positively emotionally colored and negatively emotionally colored, identify key words among positive and negatively emotionally colored in these chains.
3. Are there any chains of words in the poem that are associated associatively or phonetically (by associations or by sounds).
4. In which stanza can the culmination be distinguished, is there a denouement in the poem, if so, what kind.
5. Which line becomes the meaning for creating a poem. The role of the first line (what kind of music sounds in the soul of the poet when he takes up the pen).
6. The role of the last line. What words, with which he can end the poem, seem to the poet to be especially significant.
7. The role of sounds in a poem.
8. The color of the poem.
9. The category of time in the poem (the meaning of the past, present and future).
10. Category of space (real and astral)
11. The degree of isolation of the author, is there an appeal to the reader or addressee?
12. Features of the composition of the poem.
13. Genre of the poem (variety: philosophical reflection, elegy, ode, fable, ballad).
14. Literary direction, if possible.
15. The meaning of artistic means (comparison, metaphor, hyperbole, antithesis, alliteration, oxymoron).
16. My perception of this poem.
17. If there is a need to refer to the history of creation, the year of creation, the meaning of this poem in the poet’s work. Conditions, location. Are there any poems in the work of this poet that are similar to him, is it possible to compare this poem with the work of another poet.

Analysis of the poem (speech cliché)

The poem … (author, title) talks about …
In the poem … (title) … (surname of the poet) describes …
The poem reigns … mood. The poem … is permeated with … mood.
The mood of this poem… The mood changes throughout the poem: from … to …. The mood of the poem is…
The poem can be divided into … parts, since …
Compositionally, the poem is divided into … parts.
The sound of the poem determines … the rhythm.
Short (long) lines underline…
In a poem, we seem to hear sounds …. Constantly repeating sounds … allow you to hear ….

The poet wants to capture in words….

To create a mood, the author uses …. With the help of … the author creates an opportunity for us to see (hear) …. Using …, the poet creates an image.
The lyrical hero of this poem seems to me ….

2. Analysis of the prose text
The scheme of a complex philological analysis of a text (primarily prosaic) includes the following stages: a generalizing description of the ideological and aesthetic content, defining the genre of a work, characterizing the architectonics of the text, considering the structure of the narrative, analyzing the spatio-temporal organization of the work, the system of images and poetic language, and identifying elements of intertext.

Parsing scheme

Introduction. Creative history (textology), the history of critical evaluations, the place of a work (story, essay, story, short story) in the creative evolution or artistic system of the writer, in the history of the literary process.
Problem-thematic aspect.
Text analysis.
Semantics (symbols) of the name. The breadth of the semantic area through the prism of the title.
Architectonics.
Spatio-temporal organization of the artistic world: the image of time and space (“chronotope”, spatio-temporal continuum, relations between the character and the place of action). Spatial and temporal oppositions (up / down, far / close, day / night, etc.).
Composition. Compositional techniques (repetition, editing, etc.). Reference “points” of the composition.
Plot. metadescriptive snippets.
Rhythm, tempo, tone, intonation of the story.
Functional-semantic types of speech (description, narration, reasoning).
Stylistic originality. Visual media system.
Image system. Heroes speech.
Portrait.
Artistic detail (external, psychological, symbolic detail). Functional detail. Detail.
Landscape. Interior. World of things. Zoologisms.
The role of subtext and intertextual connections.

1. Analysis of a work of art

1. Determine the theme and idea / main idea / of this work; the issues raised in it; the pathos with which the work is written;
2. Show the relationship between plot and composition;
3. Consider the subjective organization of the work /artistic image of a person, methods of creating a character, types of images-characters, a system of images-characters/;
4. Find out the author’s attitude to the topic, idea and heroes of the work;
5. Determine the features of the functioning of the visual and expressive means of the language in this work of literature;
6. Determine the features of the genre of the work and the style of the writer.
Note: according to this scheme, you can write an essay-review about the book you read, while also presenting in the work:
1. Emotional and evaluative attitude to what is read.
2. A detailed justification for an independent assessment of the characters of the heroes of the work, their actions and experiences.
3. Detailed substantiation of the conclusions.

Analysis of a prose literary work
When starting to analyze a work of art, first of all, it is necessary to pay attention to the specific historical context of the work during the period of creation of this work of art. At the same time, it is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of historical and historical-literary situation, in the latter case, it means
• literary trends of the era;
• the place of this work among the works of other authors written during this period;
• creative history of the work;
• assessment of the work in criticism;
• originality of perception of this work by contemporaries of the writer;
• evaluation of the work in the context of modern reading;
Next, one should turn to the question of the ideological and artistic unity of the work, its content and form (in this case, the content plan is considered – what the author wanted to say and the expression plan – how he managed to do this).

Conceptual (General) level of a work of art
(themes, problems, conflict and pathos)
The theme is what the work is about, the main problem posed and considered by the author in the work, which unites the content into a single whole; these are those typical phenomena and events of real life that are reflected in the work. Does the theme resonate with the main issues of its time? Is the title related to the topic? Each phenomenon of life is a separate topic; a set of topics – the theme of the work.
The problem is that side of life that is of particular interest to the writer. One and the same problem can serve as the basis for posing different problems (the theme of serfdom is the problem of the internal lack of freedom of the serf, the problem of mutual corruption, mutilation of both serfs and serfs, the problem of social injustice …). Issues – a list of issues raised in the work. (They may be complementary and subject to the main problem.)
Idea – what the author wanted to say; the writer’s solution to the main problem or an indication of the way in which it can be solved. (The ideological meaning is the solution of all problems – the main and additional ones – or an indication of a possible solution.)
Paphos is the emotional and evaluative attitude of the writer to the narrated, which is distinguished by a great strength of feelings (maybe affirming, denying, justifying, elevating …).

The level of organization of the work as an artistic whole
Composition – the construction of a literary work; unites the parts of the work into one whole.
The main means of composition:
The plot is what happens in the work; system of major events and conflicts.
Conflict is a clash of characters and circumstances, views and principles of life, which is the basis of action. The conflict can occur between the individual and society, between characters. In the mind of the hero can be explicit and hidden. Plot elements reflect the stages of development of the conflict;
Prologue – a kind of introduction to the work, which tells about the events of the past, it emotionally sets the reader up for perception (rare);
The exposition is the introduction into action, the image of the conditions and circumstances that preceded the immediate start of the action (it can be expanded and not, whole and “broken”; it can be located not only at the beginning, but also in the middle, end of the work); introduces the characters of the work, the situation, time and circumstances of the action;
The plot is the beginning of the plot movement; the event from which the conflict begins, subsequent events develop.
The development of action is a system of events that follow from the plot; in the course of the development of the action, as a rule, the conflict escalates, and the contradictions appear more and more clearly;
The climax is the moment of the highest tension of the action, the peak of the conflict, the climax represents the main problem of the work and the characters of the characters very clearly, after it the action weakens.
The denouement is a solution to the depicted conflict or an indication of possible ways to resolve it. The final moment in the development of the action of a work of art. As a rule, it either resolves the conflict or demonstrates its fundamental insolubility.
Epilogue – the final part of the work, which indicates the direction of further development of events and the fate of the characters (sometimes an assessment is given to the depicted); this is a short story about what happened to the characters of the work after the end of the main plot action.

The plot may be:
• In direct chronological sequence of events;
• With digressions into the past – retrospectives – and “excursions” into
future;
• In a deliberately changed sequence (see artistic time in the work).

Non-plot elements are:
• Insert episodes;
• Lyrical (otherwise – author’s) digressions.
Their main function is to expand the scope of what is depicted, to enable the author to express his thoughts and feelings about various phenomena of life that are not directly related to the plot.
Some elements of the plot may be missing in the work; sometimes it is difficult to separate these elements; sometimes there are several plots in one work – in other words, storylines. There are various interpretations of the concepts of “plot” and “plot”:
1) plot – the main conflict of the work; plot – a series of events in which it is expressed;
2) plot – the artistic order of events; plot – the natural order of events

Compositional principles and elements:
The leading compositional principle (the composition is multifaceted, linear, circular, “thread with beads”; in the chronology of events or not…).

Additional composition tools:
Lyrical digressions are forms of disclosure and transmission of the writer’s feelings and thoughts about the depicted (they express the author’s attitude to the characters, to the depicted life, they can represent reflections on any occasion or an explanation of their goal, position);
Introductory (plug-in) episodes (not directly related to the plot of the work);
Artistic anticipations – the image of scenes that, as it were, predict, anticipate the further development of events;
Artistic framing – scenes that begin and end an event or work, complementing it, giving additional meaning;
Compositional techniques – internal monologues, diary, etc.

The level of the internal form of the work
The subjective organization of the narration (its consideration includes the following): The narration can be personal: on behalf of the lyrical hero (confession), on behalf of the hero-narrator, and impersonal (on behalf of the narrator).
1) The artistic image of a person – typical phenomena of life that are reflected in this image are considered; individual traits inherent in the character; reveals the originality of the created image of a person:
• External features – face, figure, costume;
• The nature of the character – it is revealed in actions, in relation to other people, manifested in a portrait, in descriptions of the feelings of the hero, in his speech. Depiction of the conditions in which the character lives and acts;
• Image of nature, helping to better understand the thoughts and feelings of the character;
• Image of the social environment, the society in which the character lives and acts;
• Presence or absence of a prototype.
2) 0 basic techniques for creating an image-character:
• Characterization of the hero through his actions and deeds (in the plot system);
• Portrait, portrait description of the hero (often expresses the author’s attitude to the character);
• Direct author’s characteristic;
• Psychological analysis – a detailed, in detail recreation of feelings, thoughts, motives – the inner world of the character; here the depiction of the “dialectics of the soul” is of particular importance, i.e. movements of the hero’s inner life;
• Characterization of the hero by other actors;
• Artistic detail – a description of objects and phenomena of the reality surrounding the character (details that reflect a broad generalization can act as symbolic details);
3) Types of images-characters:
lyrical – in the event that the writer depicts only the feelings and thoughts of the hero, without mentioning the events of his life, the actions of the hero (found mainly in poetry);
dramatic – in the event that the impression arises that the characters act “by themselves”, “without the help of the author”, i.e. the author uses the technique of self-disclosure, self-characteristics (found mainly in dramatic works) to characterize the characters;
epic – the author-narrator or narrator consistently describes the characters, their actions, characters, appearance, the environment in which they live, relationships with others (found in epic novels, stories, short stories, short stories, essays).
4) The system of images-characters;
Separate images can be combined into groups (grouping of images) – their interaction helps to more fully present and reveal each character, and through them – the theme and ideological meaning of the work.
All these groups are united in the society depicted in the work (multidimensional or one-dimensional from a social, ethnic, etc. point of view).
Artistic space and artistic time (chronotope): space and time depicted by the author.
Artistic space can be conditional and concrete; compressed and voluminous;
Artistic time can be correlated with historical or not, intermittent and continuous, in the chronology of events (epic time) or the chronology of the characters’ internal mental processes (lyrical time), long or instantaneous, finite or endless, closed (i.e. only within the plot , out of historical time) and open (against the background of a certain historical epoch).
The position of the author and ways of expressing it:
•Author’s estimates: direct and indirect.
• The way of creating artistic images: narration (image of the events taking place in the work), description (consistent enumeration of individual features, traits, properties and phenomena), forms of oral speech (dialogue, monologue).
• Place and meaning of the artistic detail (artistic detail that reinforces the idea of the whole).

External form level. Speech and rhythm-melodic organization of a literary text
The speech of the characters – expressive or not, acting as a means of typing; individual features of speech; reveals the character and helps to understand the attitude of the author.
Narrator’s speech – assessment of events and their participants
The peculiarity of the word use of the national language (the activity of including synonyms, antonyms, homonyms, archaisms, neologisms, dialectisms, barbarisms, professionalisms).
Techniques of figurativeness (tropes – the use of words in a figurative sense) are the simplest (epithet and comparison) and complex (metaphor, personification, allegory, litote, paraphrase).

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