An additional question about the prospects for changing the political regime in the USSR after the end of the Great Patriotic War

Question 3

After the end of World War II, conditions were created for maintaining a close alliance between the USSR and Western countries (USA and Great Britain) in the interests of preventing a new war and fighting against the possibility of a revival of fascism. In this spirit, statements were made by the leaders immediately after the end of the war. But soon W. Churchill’s speech was delivered in Fulton, and the “cold war” between the former allies began. Give three explanations for this turn of events.

– the ambitions of the two superpowers – the USSR and the USA, the struggle for spheres of influence

– fear of Western governments before the “red threat”, rejection of communist ideology;

– the establishment of Soviet control over the countries of Eastern Europe, the establishment of communist regimes here contrary to previous agreements;

– the totalitarian regime in the USSR and the democratic regimes of Western countries inevitably came into conflict with each other.

Question 15

List the main causes of the Cold War. Give at least two reasons.

Give at least three examples of events related to the manifestations of the Cold War in the second half of the 1940s – early 1950s.

Causes of the Cold War

1. Growing contradictions between the countries participating in the Anti-Hitler coalition in connection with the division of spheres of influence in Europe

2. The formation of a bipolar world and the strengthening of the geopolitical influence of the two “centers of power”: the USSR and the USA.

3. Ideological and geopolitical confrontation between Western countries and the USSR

The manifestation of the “cold war” in the second half of the 40s – early 50s.

1. Formation of the NATO military-political bloc and the creation of a zone of buffer states around the USSR

2. Division of Germany into the FRG and the GDR

3. Support from the USSR and the USA for various parties in local conflicts (Korean War)

4. Beginning of the arms race

Question 16

Name the main changes in the international position of the USSR after World War II (at least three changes). Give at least two examples of the foreign policy activities of the Soviet leadership during this period (before 1953).

Major changes in the foreign policy situation of the USSR

1. The growth of the authority of the USSR as the winner of Nazi Germany

2. The USSR becomes the second nuclear power in the world

3. Creation of a zone of buffer states around the USSR

Foreign policy activities of the leadership of the USSR

1. Severing relations with Yugoslavia

2. Support for North Korea

3. Creation of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance with the countries of Eastern Europe

4. Division of Germany into the FRG and the GDR


Question 21


An additional question about the prospects for changing the political regime in the USSR after the end of the Great Patriotic War

After the end of the Second World War, the processes of democratization continued in Western countries: for example, in France, women received voting rights, in a number of countries the rights of workers and employees were expanded, already existing democratic freedoms were expanded, West Germany and Austria went along the democratic path of development. It seemed to many that similar processes would cover the USSR as well. Democratic tendencies here manifested themselves in the first elections to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, in the elections of judges. But soon the political regime became tougher, and the post-war years were called “the apogee of Stalinism.” What are the reasons for such differences in the post-war development of Western countries and the USSR? Give three explanations.

The following explanations can be given:

– Strengthening the personality cult of Stalin as the leader of the people who defeated fascism;

– many Soviet citizens believed that the victory was won thanks to the political regime that existed before the war;

– the need to restore the economy destroyed as a result of the war dictated the requirement to maintain a rigid centralized power;

– democratic tendencies did not meet the interests of the party elite headed by Stalin, who were afraid of responsibility for their crimes and mistakes;

– in the conditions of the beginning of the “cold war” it was convenient to justify the preservation of the former regime;

Question 22

After the end of the Great Patriotic War, a new stage of political repression began in the USSR. Explain the reasons for this phenomenon (give three explanations).

1) Stalin needed to destroy the feeling of freedom that the Soviet people felt during the liberation campaign of the Red Army in European countries, the feeling of self-confidence that arose among the victorious people (from 1948 to 1965 Victory Day was an ordinary working day, the celebrations were very modestly)

2) Stalin sought to intimidate the leaders of the Soviet army, who distinguished themselves during the war years and earned great prestige among the country’s population (the case against colleagues of Marshal Zhukov);

3) it was necessary to intimidate the population of the territories annexed on the eve of the war (mass repressions in the Baltic States and Western Ukraine);

4) it was necessary to force the highest party and state cadres to unquestioningly carry out the orders of the party and Stalin, in military conditions they showed independence;

5) to prevent the growth of national self-consciousness of a number of peoples of the USSR.


Question 44

Below are two points of view on the 20th Congress of the CPSU, the exposure of the cult of personality by I.V. Stalin:

1. The congress caused great damage to the country, divided society into opponents and supporters of Stalin, undermined the authority of the state and the party throughout the world.

2. The 20th Congress gave a new impetus to the development of society and made it possible to abandon the most negative manifestations of the personality cult.

Please indicate which of these points of view you prefer. Give at least three facts, provisions that can serve as arguments confirming your chosen point of view.

Question 45

In the late 1950s N. S. Khrushchev achieved the maximum strengthening of his positions in the political leadership of the USSR. Specify at least three internal political events (phenomena) that contributed to the strengthening of N. S. Khrushchev’s position in the political leadership of the USSR.

The following reasons for strengthening Khrushchev’s position can be named:

– victory over the opposition represented by Molotov, Malenkov, Kaganovich and others;

– Criticism of Stalin’s personality cult at the XX Party Congress;

– dismissal of Marshal Zhukov;

– Appointment to the post of Chairman of the Council of Ministers in 1958.


Question 56

From the message of the leader of the USSR to US President John F. Kennedy.

“Dear Mr. President!

… We appreciate that you, like us, did not take a dogmatic approach to resolving the issue of eliminating the tension that had arisen, and this allowed us, in the current conditions, to find a more flexible form of checking the export of these funds . The understanding and flexibility you have shown in this matter are highly appreciated by us, although our criticism of US imperialism remains, of course, valid, because this conflict was indeed created by the policy of the United States of America towards Cuba. Now it would be necessary to take more decisive steps towards the final completion of the elimination of this tension, that is, it would be necessary for you, for your part, to clearly confirm in the UN, as you did at the press conference and in messages to me, the commitment of the United States not to invade and your allies to Cuba, removing the reservations that are now being made in the draft US declaration in the Security Council, and that our representatives in New York agree on an agreed statement in the declarations of both powers of their obligations. I believe that you have already had the opportunity to familiarize yourself with the text of the short declaration of the Soviet government, which we have proposed, in which the main obligations of the Soviet Union arising from the exchange of messages between them are formulated. We assume that a similar brief declaration should be made by the US government and that it will also

fixed the main obligations of the United States arising from the exchange of messages.

We have gone through a rather acute crisis in a short time. The sharpness of it lay in the fact that you and I were ready to fight right now, and this would lead to a world thermonuclear war with all its terrible consequences. We took this into account and, being convinced that humanity would never forgive those figures who did not exhaust all the possibilities for preventing a catastrophe, we compromised, although we understood, and now we declare this, that your claims had no legal basis. .

1. Give the name of the author of the message and the name of the crisis referred to in the passage. Indicate the name of the period when the author was the leader of the USSR.

2. On the basis of the text and knowledge of history, indicate what the author calls “the indicated means” and name the obligations assumed by each of the parties as conditions for reaching an agreement. Give at least three statements.

3. Give at least three reasons given by the author for reaching an agreement on the elimination of the crisis, the easing of international tension

1. This message was written during the Caribbean crisis, its author was N.S. Khrushchev, who headed the USSR in 1953-1964. The period of Khrushchev’s rule is called the “Thaw”.

2. By “indicated means” the author refers to the ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads stationed in Cuba and the combat units for their maintenance. The Soviet Union undertook to withdraw these weapons from Cuba under the proper control of the UN and not to place any more such weapons in Cuba. The United States responded by undertaking to lift the blockade of the island and renounce the invasion of Cuba.

3. The author of the message mentions the following reasons for reaching an agreement:

The crisis can lead to a world thermonuclear war, humanity will never forgive politicians for the fact that the world is under the threat of destruction, we have not yet exhausted all the possibilities to prevent a war.


Question 65

Question 72

Review the historical situation and answer the questions.

In the 1950s under the direction of N.S. Khrushchev carried out economic reforms in industry and agriculture, which were supposed to increase the efficiency of production.

Name at least two results of the economic development of the USSR in the early 1960s. Give at least two reasons for the current situation in the economy.

Results of economic development

  1. The growing disproportion in the development of the economy: along with the emergence of new industries (nuclear energy, space exploration, jet aircraft construction, etc.) and the beginning of the scientific and technological revolution, the volume of production mainly increased due to the construction of new large enterprises, and not by increasing the efficiency of using the existing potential, those. extensive methods
  2. Large-scale housing construction stimulated the development of many sectors of the economy
  3. The real incomes of the population increased by one third. Wages and pensions for collective farmers were introduced. The housing problem was partially solved.
  4. By the mid 60s. there was a crisis in agriculture, there was a decrease in production volumes, an increase in prices for agricultural products.

Reasons for this situation:

  1. The administrative-command system did not allow the economy to develop effectively
  2. Frequent voluntaristic changes in politics, the inconsistency of the reforms carried out at this time, “administrative fever”


Question 78

Read an excerpt from the note of the Department of Culture of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

“Last May, the Departments of Propaganda and Culture of the Central Committee of the CPSU reported to the Central Committee of the CPSU about the serious ideological errors that were contained in the materials prepared by the editors of the Novy Mir magazine for publication in the fourth issue for 1968. The note noted that the journal had previously published materials that had provoked sharp criticism in the press and in the Writers’ Union of the USSR. However, the editors of the journal did not draw the necessary conclusions from this criticism. The note included a proposal to entrust the secretariat of the board of the Union of Writers of the USSR to decide on the management of the journal Novy Mir.

The Secretariat of the Board of the Union of Writers of the USSR, having considered the issue of strengthening the composition of the management of the journal, suggested to the current editor-in-chief of the journal comrade. […] to the position of Deputy editor-in-chief several authoritative writers. Candidates of S. Zalygin, M. Lukonin, S. Narovchatov, L. Yakimenko, V. Pankov and others were named.

[Chief editor of the journal] rejected all the recommended candidates. At the same time, he insistently suggested that V. Lakshin, who repeatedly spoke in the journal from erroneous ideological positions, be approved as deputy editor-in-chief. Literary critic A. Dementiev, previously removed from his post as deputy. editor-in-chief of this journal for serious shortcomings in the work, [the editor-in-chief of the journal] proposed to be reintroduced to the editorial board.

… materials with serious shortcomings are still placed in the Novy Mir magazine. The recommendations of the Secretariat of the Board of the Union of Writers of the USSR are not taken into account. The secretaries of the board of the Union of Writers of the USSR recommended [the editor-in-chief of the journal] to take a full-time job in the secretariat of the board of the Union of Writers of the USSR. The [editor-in-chief of the journal] rejected this offer, saying that he would soon apply to the secretariat with a request to release him from the post of editor-in-chief of the journal, and asked for a month’s leave for him, after which he would not return to work at the journal.

However, even after the release of the official statement from [the editor-in-chief of the magazine] about his release from the work of the editor-in-chief was not received … “

1. Identify the editor-in-chief referred to in this passage. Indicate the leader of the USSR at the time when the described events took place. Indicate the decade in which the writers’ organization mentioned in the text was established.

2. What actions (actions) of the management of the Novy Mir magazine and its editor-in-chief were criticized in this passage? List any three actions (deeds).

3. Indicate any three facts (provisions) that are not related to the persecution of the Novy Mir magazine and its editor-in-chief, testifying to the strict control of the spiritual sphere of society by the state during the leadership of the USSR by a political figure, under which this note was compiled.

  1. The passage refers to A.T. Tvardovsky. Criticism of the leadership of the Novy Mir magazine began during the years of the leadership of the USSR L.I. Brezhnev. The Writers’ Union was founded in 1934.
  2. It was criticized that the journal publishes materials that have serious shortcomings from the point of view of the Writers’ Union, the editors of the journal do not draw the necessary conclusions from criticisms, the editor-in-chief rejects the candidates for deputies proposed by the Writers’ Union and persistently suggests unacceptable candidates for this position.
  3. In addition to the persecution of the editors of the Novy Mir magazine during the leadership of the USSR, L.I. Brezhnev, there were other examples of control over the spiritual life of society (the trial of Daniel and Sinyavsky, the persecution of A.I. Solzhenitsyn, the deprivation of citizenship of M. Rostropovich and G. Vishnevskaya)


Materials for question 78

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