Name the muscles of the middle ear and indicate their significance. B. What is the significance of the tympanic cavity and the presence of air in it? B. When the Eustachian tube opens. what does it matter?
M. tensor timpani, m. Stapedius – pour on the tightness of the tympanic membrane, stink between the ruh aspirations and themselves take part in the adaptation of the auditory receptor to the intensity of the sound. It houses the auditory ossicles, which transmit sound vibrations, to the organ of Corti, and the air, which provides vibrations of the eardrum, due to its compression. The Eustachian tube opens and closes with each sip, which maintains atmospheric pressure in the tympanic cavity.
Name 2 ways of sound transmission in the auditory analyzer. B. Describe an experiment that proves the existence of both ways. Q. What does the preservation of bone sound transmission indicate when air is disturbed?
A. Air and bone conduction. B . The patient stops hearing the sound of the tuning fork if the external auditory canals are tightly closed, but hears the sound if the tuning fork touches the bones of the skull. B. About the fact that the sound-conducting apparatus is damaged, but the sound-perceiving organ of Corti and the auditory nerve are not damaged.
A. What amplifies the sound signal in the mechanical system of the ear, which perceives sound vibrations? B. Name 3 canals of the cochlea. Q. What is the purpose of the oval and round snail windows? D. List the elements that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the hair cells of the organ of Corti.
A. Due to the larger surface of the tympanic membrane compared to the surface of the stirrup, and due to the fact that the tympanic membrane transmits its vibrations to the longer arm of the lever formed by the auditory ossicles B. Upper (vestibular scala), middle (membranous canal) and lower ( drum stairs). B. They provide the possibility of fluctuations in the relymph of the cochlea. At the same time, the thrust of the stirrup is transmitted to the membrane of the oval window, the presence of the membrane of the round window, ensures the spread of the traveling wave of relymph . D. Tympanic membrane-auditory ossicles-membrane of the oval window-relymph of the upper canal and endolymph of the middle canal-basic membrane-receptor hair cells.
What is the purpose of the tympanic membrane? B. With the help of what bones does it perform its main function? Q. Does the frequency of vibrations of the tympanic membrane correspond to the frequency of sound vibrations?
A. Protection of the middle ear from the external environment, transmission of sound vibrations to the inner ear. B. With the help of auditory ossicles (hammer, anvil, stirrup); hearing enhancement B. Compliant .
A. Describe the mechanism of stimulation of auditory receptors. B. Specify the location of the main neurons (including cortical ones) of the auditory analyzer. Q. How are low-frequency (up to 1000 Hz) sound vibrations encoded? D. What mechanism is used to encode high-frequency (over 1000 Hz)
A The action of sound causes vibration of the main membrane and the receptor hair cells located on it. Touching the tectorial membrane, the hairs are deformed, which is the irritation of phonoreceptors B. 1-spiral ganglion in the cochlea, 2-cochlear nucleus in the medulla oblongata, 3-inferior colliculus of the quadruple of the midbrain; medial geniculate body (metathalamus) 4-high lobe of the cortex. B. With the help of a spatial and partial coding mechanism, when the frequency of impulses arising in the receptors of the organ of Corti (in the upper part of the cochlea) and the fibers of the auditory nerve corresponds to the frequency of sound vibrations G. With the help of spatial coding, when with an increase in the frequency of sound, the maximum amplitude of oscillations of the main membrane shifts from the top of the cochlea to its base.
A. What facts indicate that a part of the organ of Corti at the base of the cochlea perceives high tones, in the middle – medium tones, in the region of the top of the cochlea – low tones? B. What is the mic snail effect?
A. When the coil of the cochlea is destroyed at its base, conditioned reflexes to high tones disappear, when the top of the cochlea is destroyed, conditioned reflexes to low tones disappear, and when the middle curl is destroyed, conditioned reflexes to sounds of medium frequency disappear . B. Reproduction of words and other sounds pronounced in front of the auricle using a loudspeaker connected by wires to the cochlea
A. What structural and functional elements does the vestibular apparatus consist of? B. In what parts of the vestibular apparatus are receptors located, what are the clusters of these receptors called? Q. What is an adequate stimulus to the receptors of the otolithic apparatus (the vestibule) and the receptors of the semicircular canals? D. What basic information is sent by vestibuloreceptors to the central nervous system?
A. Cochlear vestibule and three semicircular canals . B. In the vestibule – the macula of the otolithic apparatus, in the ampullae of the semicircular canals – cristae. B. For receptors of the otolithic apparatus – changes in the position of the head, acceleration or deceleration of rectilinear movement. For receptors of the semicircular canals – acceleration or deceleration of rotational movement relative to 3 axes G. On the position of the head, vibration, linear or angular acceleration relative to 3 axes (vertical, sagittal and frontal).
A. What is the function of the vestibular apparatus? B. Irritation of which receptors of the vestibular apparatus plays a major role in the occurrence of nystagmus of the eyes and head of postural and tonic and rectifying reflexes? Q. What is the vegetative shifts that occur in the body with excessive stimulation of the vestibuloreceptors?
A. Participates in the regulation of muscle tone, in maintaining a natural posture and restoring a disturbed posture B. The reflexogenic zone of nystagmus of the eye and head are the receptors of the semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus, postural and rectifying reflexes – receptors of the otolithic apparatus of the vestibule of the cochlea C. Dizziness, vomiting, nausea, changes work of the heart, vascular reactions that lead to a decrease or increase in blood pressure.
A. Name 2 functionally different departments of the labyrinth. B. What disorders occur after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus? Q. What disorders occur after bilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus? D. After what period of time are they compensated? E. Are the consequences of unilateral and bilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus more severe? Why?
A. Snail and vestibular apparatus. B. Violent rotational movements, deviations of the head and falling to the operated side. B. Dizziness, nausea, inability to maintain the vertical position of the body D. Compensated after a few months. E. One-sided, because there is an imbalance of afferent impulses entering the central nervous system.
A. What is the sense of touch called? B. What is called the simple transport threshold of tactile sensitivity? Q. What is it equal to on the skin of the back and fingertips? D. What are the 4 main types of tactile receptors?
A. This is a combination of sensations arising from irritation of the receptors of the skin, mucous membranes (touch, pressure, vibration, tickling, temperature, pain) and receptors of the musculoskeletal system . B. The smallest distance between two points on the skin, the simultaneous touch of which is perceived separately . B. For the back, this threshold is 60 mm, for the fingertips 2 mm . D. Feeling of touch, pressure, vibration, tickling.
A. Irritation of what receptors by what stimuli cause a feeling of pain? B. What functional changes occur in the body when pain is felt? Q. What provides a more accurate localization of pain sensations that occur when the skin is irritated, compared with those when the internal organs are irritated? D. Specify the type of proprioreceptors and their localization.
A. Pain (specialized free nerve endings) and any other receptors under the action of any strong stimulus. B. Muscle tone increases, cardiac activity and respiration increase, the activity of the digestive tract and kidneys is inhibited . B. More extensive cortical representation of different parts of the body, i.e. more accurate spatial coding . D. Muscle spindles – in the muscles, Golgi receptors in the tendons, receptors such as Ruffini bodies and Pacini bodies – in the joints.
What is the function of proprioceptors? B. Draw a diagram of a muscle fiber and label its structural elements. Q. What is the name of the efferent fibers that innervate the muscle spindles? What elements of the muscle spindle do they innervate? D. What influence, how do gamma motor neurons have on muscle spindles? E. What structure of the muscle spindle is associated with afferent fibers, due to which the frequency of impulses passing through them changes?
A. Informs about the position of body parts and limbs relative to the whole body, participates in the control of the musculoskeletal system, in maintaining the tone of the central nervous system and skeletal muscles, which helps to maintain a natural posture.
1-intrafusal muscle fibers;
2 core bag; 3-afferent fibers; 4-gamma afferent fibers;
5-motor nerve fiber to skeletal muscle.
B. Gamma-afferent fibers. They innervate the contractile elements of the muscle spindle ( intrafusal muscle fibers ) G. Regulate their activity by changing the force of contraction of the intrafusal muscle fiber. This leads to a change in the tension of the nuclear bag of the spindle and, consequently, to an increase in impulse activity in the corresponding afferent fibers D. Nuclear bag, due to a change in its tension during contraction and relaxation of the extra- and intrafusal muscle fibers.
A. What types of visceroreceptors (according to an adequate stimulus) do you know? B. What is their physiological significance?
A. Mechano-chemo-thermo- and osmoreceptors . B. Inform the central nervous system about the state of the internal environment of the body, participate in the regulation of the functions of internal organs.