A-side view, B-front view, C-back view.

Section 1 – Osteology.

Picture 1 . Human skeleton, front view:

1 – skull

2 – spinal column

3 – clavicle

4 – rib

5 – sternum

6 – humerus

7 – radius

8 – ulna

9 – bones of the wrist

10- metacarpal bones

11 – phalanges of the fingers

12 – ilium

13 – sacrum

14 – pubic bone

15 – ischium

16 – femur

17 – patella

18 – tibia

19 – fibula

20 – tarsal bones

21 – metatarsal bones

22 – phalanges of the toes

Human skeleton, front view:

Figure 2. Vertebral column:

A-side view, B-front view, C-back view.

Departments: I – cervical; II – chest; III – lumbar; IV – sacral; V – coccygeal;

1.3 – cervical and lumbar lordosis;

2.4 – thoracic and sacral kyphosis;

5 – cape (according to R.D. Sinelnikov)

Figure 3. The structure of the thoracic vertebra:

A – side view:

1 – vertebral body

2 – upper costal fossa

3 – upper vertebral notch

4 – superior articular process

5 – transverse costal fossa

6 – transverse process

7 – spinous process

8 – lower articular process

9 – lower vertebral notch

10 – lower costal fossa

B – top view:

1 – arch of the vertebra

2 – transverse process

3 – vertebral foramen

4 – vertebral body

5 – upper costal fossa

6 – pedicle of the vertebral arch

7 – costal fossa of the transverse process

8 – upper articular surface

9 – spinous process

Vertebral column:

The structure of the thoracic vertebra:

Figure 4. The first cervical vertebra, or atlas, top view:

1 – posterior tubercle

2 – groove of the vertebral artery

3 – opening of the transverse process

4 – tooth fossa

5 – front arc

6 – anterior tubercle

7 – transverse process

8 – superior articular fossa

9 – rear arc

10 – vertebral foramen

Figure 5. The second cervical vertebra, or axial, side view:

1 – anterior articular surface

2 – tooth

3 – posterior articular surface

4 – upper articular surface

5 – opening of the transverse process

6 – arch of the vertebra

7 – spinous process

8 – lower articular process

9 – transverse process

10 – vertebral body

The first cervical vertebra, or atlas, top view:

The second cervical vertebra, or axial, side view:

Figure 6. Thorax, front view:

1 – body of the sternum

2 – handle of the sternum

3 – upper aperture of the chest

4 – clavicle

5 – scapula

6 – ribs

7 – xiphoid process of the sternum

8 – costal arch

Figure 7. Shoulder blade, back view and front view:

Figure 8. Human skull, side view:

1 – parietal bone

2 – coronal suture

3 – frontal tubercle

4 – temporal surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone

5 – orbital plate of the ethmoid bone

6 – lacrimal bone

7 – nasal bone

8 – temporal fossa

9 – anterior nasal spine

10 – the body of the upper jaw

11 – lower jaw

12 – zygomatic bone

13 – zygomatic arch

14 – styloid process

15 – condylar process of the lower jaw

16 – mastoid process

17 – external auditory meatus

18 – lambdoid seam

19 – scales of the occipital bone

20 – superior temporal line

21 – squamous part of the temporal bone

Human skull, side view:

Figure 9. Human skull, front view:

1 – coronal suture

2 – parietal bone

3 – orbital part of the frontal bone

4 – orbital surface of the greater wing of the sphenoid bone

5 – zygomatic bone

6 – inferior turbinate

7 – upper jaw

8 – chin protrusion of the lower jaw

9 – nasal cavity

10 – coulter

11 – perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone

12 – orbital surface of the upper jaw

13 – lower orbital fissure

14 – lacrimal bone

15 – orbital plate of the ethmoid bone

16 – superior orbital fissure

17 – squamous part of the temporal bone

18 – zygomatic process of the frontal bone

19 – visual channel

20 – nasal bone

21 – frontal tubercle

Human skull, front view:

Figure 10. External base of the skull:

1 – palatine process of the upper jaw

2 – median palatine suture

3 – incisive holes

4 – transverse palatine suture

5 – choanae

6 – opener wing

7 – pterygoid fossa

8 – lateral plate of the pterygoid process

9 – lower orbital fissure

10 – zygomatic arch

11 – pterygoid process

12 – oval hole

13 – torn hole

14 – spinous foramen

15 – styloid process

16 – pharyngeal tubercle

17 – external auditory meatus

18 – mastoid process

19 – mastoid notch

20 – bottom line

21 – large (occipital) foramen

22 – external occipital protrusion

23 – occipital-mastoid suture

24 – condylar fossa

25 – condylar canal

26 – occipital condyle

27 – stylomastoid foramen

28 – jugular hole

29 – stony-tympanic fissure

30 – external carotid foramen

31 – mandibular fossa

32 – articular tubercle

33 – wedge-scaly seam

34 – pterygoid hook

35 – zygomatic maxillary suture

36 – a large palatine opening

External base of the skull:

Figure 11. Inner base of the skull:

1 – cockscomb

2 – lattice plate

3 – visual channel

4 – pituitary fossa

5 – round hole

6 – saddle back

7 – oval hole

8 – spinous foramen

9 – internal auditory opening

10 – slope

11 – jugular opening

12 – sublingual canal

13 – lambdoid seam

14 – groove of the transverse sinus

15 – internal occipital protrusion

16 – occipital scales

17 – large (occipital) foramen

18 – pyramid (stony part) of the temporal bone

19 – torn hole

20 – squamous part of the temporal bone

21 – a large wing of the sphenoid bone

22 – small wing of the sphenoid bone

23 – orbital part of the frontal bone

Inner base of the skull:

Figure 12. Skull of a newborn, side view (A) and top (B):

1 – anterior fontanel

2 – wedge-shaped fontanel

3 – a large wing of the sphenoid bone

4 – frontal tubercle

5 – nasal bone

6 – lacrimal bone

7 – zygomatic bone

8 – upper jaw

9 – lower jaw

10 – tympanic ring of the temporal bone

11 – squamous part of the temporal bone

12 – lateral part of the occipital bone

13 – mastoid fontanel

14 – occipital scales

15 – posterior fontanel

16 – parietal tubercle

17 – frontal seam

Skull of a newborn, side view (A) and top (B):

Figure 13. Bones of the upper limb, right, front view:

1 – clavicle

2 – sternal end of the clavicle

3 – scapula

4 – coracoid process of the scapula

5 – articular cavity of the scapula

6 – humerus

7 – coronal fossa of the humerus

8 – medial epicondyle

9 – block of the humerus

10 – coronoid process of the ulna

11 – tuberosity of the ulna

12 – ulna

13 – head of the ulna

14 – bones of the wrist

15 – IV metacarpal bones

16 – phalanges of fingers

17 – styloid process of the radius

18 – radius

19 – head of the radius

20 – crest of a large tubercle

21 – intertubercular furrow

22 – large tubercle

23 – small tubercle

24 – head of the humerus

25 – acromion

Bones of the upper limb, right, front view:

Figure 14. Bones of the hand, front view:

1 – trapezoid bone

2 – trapezoid bone

3 – navicular bone

4 – lunate bone

5 – trihedral bone

6 – pisiform bone

7 – hook-shaped bone

8 – bones of the metacarpus

9 – phalanges of fingers

10 – capitate bone

Figure 15. Bones of the foot, right, top view:

1 – calcaneus

2 – block of the talus

3 – talus

4 – navicular bone

5 – medial sphenoid bone

6 – intermediate sphenoid bone

7 – I metatarsal bone

8 – proximal phalanx

9 – distal (nail) phalanx

10 – middle phalanx

11 – tuberosity of the V metatarsal bone

12 – cuboid bone

13 – lateral sphenoid bone

14 – calcaneal tubercle

Bones of the hand, front view:

Bones of the foot, right, top view:

Figure 16. Bones of the lower limb, front view:

1 – sacrum

2 – sacroiliac joint

3 – superior branch of the pubic bone

4 – symphysial surface of the pubic bone

5 – the lower branch of the pubic bone

6 – branch of the ischium

7 – ischial tuberosity

8 – the body of the ischium

9 – medial epicondyle of the femur

10 – medial condyle of the tibia

11 – tibial tuberosity

12 – body of the tibia

13 – medial malleolus

14 – phalanges of fingers

15 – bones of the metatarsus

16 – bones of the tarsus

17 – lateral ankle

18 – fibula

19 – the anterior edge of the tibia

20 – head of the fibula

21 – lateral condyle of the tibia

22 – lateral epicondyle of the femur

23 – patella

24 – femur

25 – greater trochanter of the femur

26 – neck of the femur

27 – head of the femur

28 – wing of the ilium

29 – iliac crest

Bones of the lower limb, front view:

Figure 17. Knee joint, right, front view (articular capsule removed, quadriceps femoris tendon with patella pulled down):

1 – patella surface

2 – posterior cruciate ligament

3 – anterior cruciate ligament

4 – transverse ligament of the knee

5 – medial meniscus

6 – collateral tibial ligament

7 – patellar ligament

8 – articular surface of the patella

9 – tendon of the quadriceps femoris

10 – interosseous membrane of the leg

11 – head of the fibula

12 – anterior ligament of the head of the fibula

13 – tendon of the biceps femoris

14 – lateral meniscus

15 – collateral peroneal ligament

Knee joint, right, front view:

Figure 18. The pelvis is female. Sizes of the large and small pelvis:

A – top view:

1 – the distance between the iliac crests

2 – transverse size of the entrance to the small pelvis

3 – the distance between the front upper awns

4 – oblique size of the entrance to the small pelvis

5 – direct size (true conjugate)

6 – pubic symphysis

7 – iliac-pubic eminence

8 – superior anterior iliac spine

9 – wing of the ilium

10 – sacroiliac joint

B – sagittal cut, view from the inside (from the side of the pelvic cavity):

1 – external conjugate

2 – direct size (pelvic cavity)

3 – axis of the pelvis

4 – direct size (exit from the pelvic cavity)

5 – diagonal conjugate

6 – true (gynecological) conjugate

The pelvis is female. Sizes of the large and small pelvis:

Section 2 – Myology.

Figure 1. Muscles of various shapes:

I – fusiform

II – single-pinnate

III – bipinnate

IV – two-headed

V – muscle with tendon bridges

VI – digastric

VII – sphincter (circular)

Figure 2. Chewing muscles, right side view:

A – the zygomatic arch is sawn off and turned away together with the masseter muscle:

1 – temporal muscle

2 – coronoid process of the lower jaw

3 – chewing muscle

4 – lateral pterygoid muscle

B – the zygomatic arch and part of the lower jaw branch are removed:

1 – zygomatic arch (sawn off)

2 – medial pterygoid muscle

3 – angle of the lower jaw

4 – branch of the lower jaw

5 – lateral pterygoid muscle

Muscles of various shapes:

Chewing muscles, right side view:

Figure 3. Muscles of the neck, side view (subcutaneous muscle of the neck removed):

1 – sternocleidomastoid muscle

2 – jaw-hyoid muscle

3 – digastric muscle (anterior belly)

4 – hyoid bone

5 – sternohyoid muscle

6 – scapular-hyoid muscle

7 – anterior and middle scalene muscles

8 – trapezius muscle

9 – digastric muscle (posterior belly)

Figure 4. Muscles of the neck, front view:

1 – digastric muscle (anterior belly)

2 – jaw-hyoid muscle

3 – sternocleidomastoid muscle

4 – sternohyoid muscles

5 – sternothyroid muscle

6 – scapular-hyoid muscle

7 – scalene muscles (anterior, middle, back)

8 – hyoid bone

9 – digastric muscle (posterior belly)

10 – stylohyoid muscle

Muscles of the neck, side view:

Muscles of the neck, front view:

Figure 5. Mimic muscles (facial muscles), front view:

1 – tendon helmet

2 – frontal belly of the occipital-frontal muscle

3 – muscle wrinkling the eyebrow

4 – the muscle that raises the upper lip

5 – muscle that raises the corner of the mouth

6 – buccal muscle

7 – chewing muscle

8 – chin muscle

9 – muscle that lowers the lower lip

10 – muscle that lowers the corner of the mouth

11 – circular muscle of the mouth

12 – muscle of laughter

13 – a large zygomatic muscle

14 – small zygomatic muscle

15 – circular muscle of the eye

16 – muscle of the proud

Mimic muscles (facial muscles), front view:

Figure 6. Superficial muscles of the back (first layer):

1 – trapezius muscle

2 – spine of the scapula

3 – deltoid muscle

4 – infraspinatus muscle

5 – small round muscle

6 – large round muscle

7 – large rhomboid muscle

8 – latissimus dorsi muscle

9 – lumbar triangle

10 – external oblique muscle of the abdomen

11 – iliac crest

12 – gluteus medius

13 – gluteus maximus

14 – lumbar-thoracic fascia

15 – spinous process of the XII thoracic vertebra

16 – triceps muscle of the shoulder

17 – sternocleidomastoid muscle

18 – belt muscle of the head

Superficial back muscles (first layer):

Figure 7. Superficial muscles of the chest and abdomen:

1 – pectoralis major muscle

2 – axillary cavity

3 – latissimus dorsi muscle

4 – serratus anterior muscle

5 – external oblique muscle of the abdomen

6 – aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle of the abdomen

7 – umbilical ring

8 – white line of the abdomen

9 – inguinal ligament

10 – superficial inguinal ring

11 – spermatic cord

Superficial muscles of the chest and abdomen:

Figure 8. Diaphragm, bottom view, from the side of the abdominal cavity:

1 – square muscle of the lower back

2 – small lumbar muscle

3 – psoas major

4 – iliac fascia

5 – transverse fascia

6 – psoas major (partially removed)

7 – iliac muscle

8 – transverse muscles

9 – lateral arcuate ligament

10 – medial arcuate ligament

11 – lumbar part of the diaphragm

12 – esophageal opening

13 – opening of the inferior vena cava

14 – tendon center

Diaphragm, view from below, from the side of the abdominal cavity:

Figure 9. Inguinal canal, front view.

On the right side, the external and internal oblique muscles of the abdomen are cut and turned to the side. On the left side, the anterior wall of the sheath of the rectus abdominis was removed:

1 – inguinal canal (opened)

2 – spermatic cord

3 – rectus abdominis

4 – deep ring of the inguinal canal

5 – superficial ring of the inguinal canal

6 – aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle of the abdomen

7 – transverse fascia of the abdomen

8 – internal oblique muscle of the abdomen

9 – transverse abdominal muscle

Inguinal canal, front view:

Figure 10. Muscles and fascia of the female perineum.

On the left, the fasciae are removed and the urogenital diaphragm is partially dissected:

1 – ischiocavernosus muscle

2 – lower fascia of the urogenital diaphragm (perineal membrane)

3 – deep transverse muscle of the perineum

4 – superior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm

5 – superficial transverse muscle of the perineum

6 – anus

7 – external anal sphincter

8 – sacrotuberous ligament

9 – gluteus maximus

10 – muscle that lifts the anus

11 – anal-coccygeal ligament

12 – gluteal fascia

13 – lower fascia of the pelvic diaphragm

14 – bulbous spongy muscle

15 – wide fascia of the thigh

16 – opening of the vagina

17 – superficial fascia of the perineum

18 – external opening of the urethra

19 – head of the clitoris

Muscles and fascia of the female perineum:

Figure 11. Muscles of the upper limb, front view:

1 – subscapularis muscle

2 – large round muscle

3 – latissimus dorsi muscle

4 – long head of the triceps muscle of the shoulder

5 – medial head of the triceps muscle of the shoulder

6 – cubital fossa

7 – medial epicondyle of the humerus

8 – round pronator

9 – elbow flexor of the wrist

10 – long palmar muscle

11 – superficial finger flexor

12 – part of the fascia of the forearm

13 – short palmar muscle

14 – elevation of the little finger

15 – palmar aponeurosis

16 – thumb elevation

17 – tendon of the long muscle that abducts the thumb of the hand

18 – long flexor of the thumb

19 – superficial finger flexor

20 – radial flexor of the wrist

21 – brachioradialis muscle

22 – aponeurosis of the biceps of the shoulder

23 – tendon of the biceps muscle of the shoulder

24 – shoulder muscle

25 – biceps muscle of the shoulder

26 – coracobrachial muscle

27 – short head of the biceps of the shoulder

28 – long head of the biceps of the shoulder

29 – deltoid muscle

Muscles of the upper limb, front view:

Figure 12. Muscles of the upper limb, rear view:

1 – supraspinatus muscle

2 – spine of the scapula

3 – deltoid muscle

4 – brachioradialis muscle

5 – long radial extensor of the wrist

6 – lateral epicondyle

7 – ulnar muscle

8 – short radial extensor of the wrist

9 – extensor of fingers

10 – a long muscle that removes the thumb of the hand

11 – short extensor of the thumb

12 – tendon of the long extensor of the thumb

13 – the first dorsal interosseous muscle

14 – extensor tendons of the fingers

15 – extensor tendon of the little finger

16 – extensor tendon of the index finger

17 – extensor retinaculum

18 – ulnar extensor of the wrist

19 – extensor of the little finger

20 – elbow flexor of the wrist

21 – olecranon

22 – medial epicondyle

23 – triceps muscle of the shoulder

24 – lateral head of the triceps muscle of the shoulder

25 – long head of the triceps muscle of the shoulder

26 – a large round muscle

27 – small round muscle

28 – infraspinatus muscle

29 – lower angle of the scapula

Muscles of the upper limb, rear view:

Figure 13. Muscles of the lower limb, right, front view:

1 – tailor muscle

2 – iliopsoas muscle

3 – comb muscle

4 – long adductor muscle

5 – thin muscle

6 – gastrocnemius muscle (medial head)

7 – soleus muscle

8 – tendon of the long extensor of the big toe

9 – lower extensor tendon retinaculum

10 – upper retainer of the extensor tendons

11 – long extensor of the fingers

12 – short peroneal muscle

13 – anterior tibial muscle

14 – long peroneal muscle

15 – quadriceps femoris

16 – wide fascia tensioner

Muscles of the lower limb, right, front view:

Figure 14. Muscles of the lower limb, right, rear view:

1 – gluteus maximus muscle

2 – iliac-tibial tract

3 – biceps femoris

4 – popliteal fossa

5 – calcaneal (Achilles) tendon

6 – calf muscle

7 – semitendinosus muscle

8 – semimembranosus muscle

Muscles of the lower limb, right, rear view:

Figure 15. Deep (external) pelvic muscles.

The gluteus maximus, medius and quadratus femoris have been removed:

1 – gluteus medius (cut off)

2 – small gluteal muscle

3 – upper twin muscle

4 – gluteus medius (cut off)

5 – large skewer (sawn off)

6 – lower twin muscle

7 – square muscle of the thigh (cut off)

8 – external obturator muscle

9 – sacrotuberous ligament (partially removed)

10 – internal obturator muscle

11 – sacrospinous ligament

12 – pear-shaped hole

13 – piriformis muscle

14 – pear-shaped hole

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