A complex of interrelated programs designed to manage computer resources and organize user interaction

OS allows:

Resource management (coordinates the operation of all hardware)

· Process management, ie. execution of programs, their interaction with computer devices and data

· User interface, ie. execution of user commands

The main functions of the OS :

Reception from the user or operator of systems of tasks or commands (in the appropriate language);

receiving and executing program requests;

Loading programs to be executed into RAM;

· provision of multiprogramming mode;

Ensuring the operation of file and data management systems;

providing functions for organizing and managing all input / output operations;

memory allocation and organization of virtual memory;

planning and dispatching of tasks;

organization of exchange mechanisms between executing programs of data and messages;

protection of one program from the influence of another and ensuring the safety of data;

provision of services in case of partial failure;

ensuring the operation of programming systems.

user authentication and authorization

2. System software. SPO architecture.

SPO. System software is programs and software packages that are common to all who use the technical means of computer systems. And it is used for automation (development of new programs) and for organizing the execution of existing programs.

SPO is divided into 5 points:

Operating systems (OS)

· File management systems

Interface shells for user interaction with OS and software environments

· System programs

Utilities

3. Main functions of operating systems

Reception from the user or operator of systems of tasks or commands (in the appropriate language);

receiving and executing program requests;

Loading programs to be executed into RAM;

· provision of multiprogramming mode;

Ensuring the operation of file and data management systems;

providing functions for organizing and managing all input / output operations;

memory allocation and organization of virtual memory;

planning and dispatching of tasks;

organization of exchange mechanisms between executing programs of data and messages;

protection of one program from the influence of another and ensuring the safety of data;

provision of services in case of partial failure;

ensuring the operation of programming systems.

user authentication and authorization

4. Generalized structure of the VS software.

5. Concept of computing process and resource.

A process is a program that is currently running. ISO 9000:2000 defines a process as a set of interrelated and interacting activities that transform inputs into outputs.

A process is a minimal software entity that has its own system resources.

The computer program itself is only a passive sequence of instructions, while a process is the direct execution of those instructions.

Also, a process is a running program and all its elements: address space, global variables, registers, stack, open files, etc.

Process – a certain sequence of actions performed by the processor with the involvement of the necessary resources (memory, external devices, etc.). The process is determined by the program corresponding to the given task.

Computing resources are the capabilities provided by the components of a computing system, consumed (occupied) in the course of its operation.

COMPUTATION PROCESS (calculation process). The process of solving problems on a computer

6. OS as a computer system resource manager. The main types of OS resources.

OS as resource manager;

For this purpose, a special information structure is created for each process, called a descriptor. In general, a process handle typically contains the following information:

process ID

process type

process priority

state variable

task context

Resource information

o Key resources include:

Processor

main memory

· I/O devices

Information resources (data)

· Software resources

OS allows:

Resource management (coordinates the operation of all hardware)

· Process management, ie. execution of programs, their interaction with computer devices and data

· User interface, ie. execution of user commands

· The main resources of modern computing systems can include such resources as processors, main memory, input-output devices, information resources (data) and software resources.

The OS manages the movement, storage and processing of data and, managing the resources of the computer, controls its main functions. However, this control has the following features:

OS functions work in the same way as all other software;

· The OS often hands over control to other processes and must wait for the processor to let it do its job again.

An OS is essentially a set of computer programs. Like any other program, it issues commands to the processor. The key difference is the purpose of this program. The OS tells the processor how to use other system resources and how to allocate time when executing other programs.

7. Operating system supervisors. Implementation of a sequential process in the OS.

Supervisor is a multitasking OS program that ensures the best use of computer resources while performing several tasks simultaneously. Supervisors are: I / O supervisor, interrupt supervisor, task supervisor, etc.

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